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Для других операционных систем и клиентов действия будут несколько иными, но мало отличаться по смыслу. Торрент-клиент, не имея возможности соединиться с трекерами, не получает от них список адресов других пользователей, участвующих в той или иной раздаче. В результате падает скорость обмена: клиентам труднее найти друг друга, широта выбора пиров сужается для каждого из них, затруднён поиск новых, ещё неизвестных клиенту раздач.

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И никаких "инструкций": как легко и просто убить приставку. Так как в онлайн игры не играю, то никаких спуфферов и ПСНпатчей. Благо есть толковые сайты, со всем необходимым софтом и где объяснят как им пользоваться, пока вашу приставку не забанят Кастомная прошивка CFW 4. Многочисленные опыты с различными версиями прошивок от Рожеро, Хабиба привели к сему мастеру - Darknet. На данный момент это самые стабильные прошивки, на которых работают все игры благодаря окончательно и бесповоротно отключенной Cinavia Protection.

Никаких Cobra или Rebug функций. Но для тех, кому он всё-таки нужен, в раздаче лайт-версия без сотен мегабайт обложек игр, про которые уже давно никто не помнит multiMAN И альтернатива мультиману Gamesonic Manager 3. Для тех, кто использует приставку ещё как мультимедиа центр - Showtime 4. Это аналог домашнего кинотеатра на PlayStation 3, по сути является медиаплеером, использованным на HTPC медиа центрах.

Любая современная после года выпуска кастомная CFW прошивка ставится на любую современную кастомную CFW прошивку без необходимости даунгрейда до 3. Благо есть толковые сайты, со всем необходимым софтом и где объяснят как им пользоваться, пока вашу приставку не забанят Подробней о всём, что в раздаче.

Краткий мануал. Вы не можете начинать темы Вы не можете отвечать на сообщения Вы не можете редактировать свои сообщения Вы не можете удалять свои сообщения Вы не можете голосовать в опросах Вы не можете прикреплять файлы к сообщениям Вы не можете скачивать файлы. Сайт не предоставляет электронные версии произведений, а занимается лишь коллекционированием и каталогизацией ссылок, присылаемых и публикуемых на форуме нашими читателями.

Если вы являетесь правообладателем какого-либо представленного материала и не желаете, чтобы ссылка на него находилась в нашем каталоге, свяжитесь с нами, и мы незамедлительно удалим её.

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Many news outlets label Anonymous as a terrorist group, and constant hacking operations keep the group in the public eye today. Edward Snowden became a household name in when he leaked sensitive documents from the National Security Agency that revealed the US governments domestic and worldwide surveillance programs. Snowden is hailed as a hero by those that believe the surveillance was unwarranted, obtrusive, and an invasion of privacy. Opponents of Snowden claim he is a terrorist who leaked private data of the government.

No matter which way the situation is viewed, it becomes clear that hacking and cybersecurity are grand-scale issues in the modern world. Having always-connected internet has exposed almost every computer as vulnerable.

Cybersecurity is now a major concern for every government, corporation, and individual. Hacking is a necessary entity in the modern world, no matter if it is used for good or evil. As computers are so prevalent and interweaved with typical function, hackers will be needed constantly for professional security positions.

It is only through studying the past, though, that we can learn about the unique situation that modern hacking is in. IT professionals today usually do not fill jack-of-all-trades positions in corporations. While a small business may still employ a single person who is moderately proficient in most areas of technology, the huge demands imposed on internet connected big businesses means that several IT specialists must be present concurrently.

Overall, security must be present in companies either full-time, contracted through a 3rd party, or through dual specialization of a system administrator. Annually a large amount of revenue is lost due to data breaches, cyber-theft, DDOS attacks, and ransomware. Hackers perpetuate the constant need for security while anti-hackers play catch-up to protect assets. The role of a security professional is to confirm to the best of their ability the integrity of all the security of an organization.

Below are a few explanations of the various areas of study that security professionals protect from threats. CISSPs are sometimes considered anti-hackers because they employ their knowledge to stop hackers before the problem can even occur. Network security includes protecting a networked server from outside intrusion. This means that there cannot be any entry point for curious individuals to gain access.

Data sent through the network should not be able to be intercepted or read, and sometimes encryption is needed to ensure compromised data is not useful to a hacker. A sophisticated security infrastructure needs to be able to identify and authenticate authorized individuals.

Security professionals use methods such as passwords, biometrics, and two-factor authentication to make sure that a computer user really is who they say they are. Hackers attempt to disguise themselves as another user by stealing their password or finding loopholes. Hackers are quick to exploit hidden bugs and loopholes in software that could elevate their privilege and give them access to secret data. Since most corporations and governments run their own in-house proprietary software, security professionals cannot always fully test software for problems.

This is a popular areas for hackers to exploit, because bugs and loopholes are potentially numerous. Sometimes the hacker is successful. A skilled troublemaker can infiltrate remote servers and deal great damage or steal a plethora of information; disaster recovery is how security professionals respond. Often, there are documents that have a specific plan for most common disaster situations. Automated recognition systems can tell when an intrusion has occurred or when data has been stolen, and the best CISSPs can shut down the hack or even reverse-track the culprit to reveal their true identity.

Disaster recovery is not always a response to attacks, though. Natural disasters count too, and there is nothing worse than a flooded server room. Professionals must have a disaster plan to get their business back up and running or else the business could face a substantial loss of money. As weve learned by looking at history, the encryption of data is a valuable tool that can protect the most valuable information.

Security personnel use cryptography to encrypt sensitive files, and hackers break that encryption. Competent hackers can break weak encryption by having a strong computer that can perform fast math , or by finding flaws in the encryption algorithms. Is it worth it? Every addition to computer infrastructure comes with a risk. Networked printers are extremely helpful to businesses, but hackers have a reputation for gaining access to a network by exploiting vulnerabilities in the printer software.

When anything is going to be changed, IT staff must weigh the risk versus the benefit to conclude whether change is a safe idea. After all, adding that Wi-Fienabled coffee pot may just give a hacker the entry point they need. A common theme in cyberpunk novels a literary subgenre about hackers involves breaking into a building at night and compromising the network from within.

This is a real threat, because any person that has physical access to a computer has a significant advantage when it comes to hacking. Physical security involves restricting actual bodily access to parts of a building or locking doors so a hacker doesnt have the chance to slip by and walk off with an HDD.

Many, many notable hacks were performed by employees of the organization that had too many access permissions. Using the information and access that they are granted, these hackers commit an inside job and make off with their goals.

Security teams attempt to prevent this by only giving just enough access to everyone that they need to do their job. It just goes to show, security staff cannot even trust their coworkers. Interestingly, the domains give an insight into the methodology and philosophy that security IT have when protecting data, and how hackers have to be wary of exactly how CISSPs operate.

The most useful knowledge about modern security for hackers, though, is an intimate idea of how businesses conduct operations. Understanding that most businesses store data on a server and authenticate themselves through Windows domains is a decent first step, but real-world experience is needed to actually understand what makes computer infrastructure tick. One important aspect of hacking involves a deep understanding of a multitude of computing concepts.

In this chapter, we will broadly cover a few important ones. The skill of writing instructional code for a computer is known as programming. Original programming was done with only binary 1s and 0s. Programming nowadays is done with high-level programming languages that are decently close to plain English with special characters mixed in. Programs must be compiled, which means translated into machine code before they can run.

Understanding the basics of programming gives a hacker much insight into how the applications they are trying to exploit work, which might just give them an edge. Algorithms are repeated tasks that lead to a result. For example, multiplication problems can be solved through an algorithm that repeatedly adds numbers. Algorithms are the basis of encryption- repeated scrambling is done to data to obfuscate it. Cryptography is the study and practice of encryption and decryption. Encrypting a file involves scrambling the data contents around through a variety of algorithms.

The more complex the algorithm,. Important files are almost always encrypted so they cannot be read without the password that begins the decryption. Encryption can be undone through various other means, too, such as cryptoanalysis intense evaluation and study of data patterns that might lead to discovering the password or attacks.

Passwords are a key phrases that authenticates a user to access information not usually accessible to those not authorized. We use passwords for just about everything in computers, and cracking passwords is a prize for most hackers. Passwords can be compromised many different ways, but mostly through database leaks, social engineering, or weak passwords. The physical components of a computer that make them work. Heres a small security tidbit: the US government is sometimes worried that hardware coming from China is engineered in such a way that would allow China to hack into US government computers.

Software is any program of written code that performs a task. Software examples range from word processors to web browsers to operating systems. Software can also be referred to as programs, applications, and apps. A small piece of code that achieves a simple task can be called a script. Usually not a full-fledged program or software because it is just too small. The large piece of software on a computer that is used as a framework for other smaller applications is called an operating system or OS.

While Windows uses the NT kernel as a core, operating systems such as Ubuntu and Debian use the Linux kernel as a core. Linux operating systems are very different from the ones we are used to, because they do not run. In fact, some Linux operating systems are purely text-based. Linux, though, is very powerful to a hacker because it can run software that Windows cannot, and some of this software is designed with security and hacking specifically in mind. We will see in later chapters how Linux can be used to our advantage.

A broad term that usually encompasses a variety of threats. It can mean virus, worm, Trojan, malware, or any other malicious piece of software. Specifically, a virus in particular is a self-replicating harmful program. Viruses copy themselves to other computers and continue to infect like the common cold. Some viruses are meant to annoy the user, others are meant to destroy a system, and some even.

Strange computer activity or general slowness can sometimes be a virus. Worms Worms are malicious pieces of code that do not need a host computer. Worms crawl through networks and have far reaching infections. Named from the ancient Trojan Horse, Trojans are bad software that are disguised as helpful programs. If youve ever got an infection from downloading a program on the internet, then you were hit by a Trojan.

Trojans are often bundled in software installations and copied alongside actually helpful programs. Malware Malware is a general and generic term for mischievous programs, such as scripts, ransomware, and all those mentioned above. Ransomware is a specific type of malware that cleverly encrypts users files and demands payment for the decryption password. Highly effective, as large businesses that require their data be always available hospitals, schools, etc usually have to pay the fee to continue business.

Worms and other types of malware sometimes infect computers with a larger purpose. Botnets are interconnected networks of infected computers that respond to a hackers bidding. Infected zombies can be made to run as a group and pool resources for massive DDoS attacks that shut down corporate and government websites. Some botnet groups use the massive combined computing power to brute-force passwords and decrypt data.

Being part of a malicious botnet is never beneficial. There exist helpful tools for hackers and individuals concerned with privacy. Proxies are services that route your internet content to another place as to hide your true location. For example, if you were to post online though a proxy located in Sweden, the post would look as though it was initially created in Sweden, rather than where you actually live.

Hackers use proxies to hide their true location should they ever be found out. Security-concerned people use proxies to throw off obtrusive surveillance. It works very much like a proxy, but can hide various other information in addition to encryption of the internet packets. VPNs are typically used by business employees that work away from the office. An employee can connect to their VPN and they will be tunneled through to the corporate server and can access data as if they were sitting in an office work chair.

VPNs can be used by hackers to hide location and data information, or to create a direct link to their target. A VPN link to an office server will certainly give more privilege than an average internet connection would. Penetration testing, or pen testing, is the benevolent act of searching for vulnerabilities in security that a hacker might use to their advantage. Security experts can do pen testing as a full time job and get paid by companies to discover exploits before the bad guys do.

An exploit or problem within a program or network that can be used to gain extra access is referred to as a vulnerability. An exploit in the popular Sony video game console Playstation 3 let hackers install pirated games for free instead of paying for them. Finding an exploit or vulnerability is another large goal for hackers. A glitch or problem within a program that produces unexpected results.

Bugs can sometimes be used to make an exploit, so hackers are always checking for bugs in program, and security experts are always trying to resolve bugs. The internet is a network of connected computers that can communicate with each other. Websites are available by communicating with web servers, and games can be played after connecting to a game server. Ultimately every computer on the internet can be communicated with by every other computer depending on the computers security settings.

Companies might use intranets to share files securely and without putting them through the entire internet where they could be intercepted. VPNs are usually used to connect to private intranets. An IP Internet Protocol address is the numerical identifier given to a device on a network. Every computer on the internet has a public IP, which is the IP that can geographically pinpoint a computer.

We use IP addresses to connect to websites, but instead of typing a number such as That was a ton of vocab words wasnt it? Take a break! If youve liked what youve read and love the information youre getting, I humbly ask you to leave an honest review for my book! If youre ready, go on to chapter 4. Firstly, this book assumes that the aspiring hacker is using a Windows-based operating system. One of the best tools available on Windows is the command prompt, which can be accessed by following these directions:.

The command prompt resembles old DOS prompts or Linux terminals in aesthetics and functionality. Essentially, the entire computer can be interfaced through the command prompt without ever using a mouse, and this is how older computers worked!

It is an essential tool for hackers because there are commands and hacking methods that are only possible through typing commands into the prompt. You can type dir and press enter to view the contents of the directory. To change folders, you would type cd foldername. You can also go backwards by typing cd More commands can be viewed by typing help.

It is strongly encouraged that the aspiring hacker learn and master the command line, because cmd is a hackers best friend! Hacking is a broad term to describe a variety of methods to achieve an end goal of gaining access to a system. Although some hackers do it for fun, others do it for personal gain. No matter how it is achieved, it must come about through a variety of technical methods, which will be described below.

A few might have a demonstration attached to them; feel free to start your hacking career by following along. Social engineering is a hacking technique that doesnt actually involve technical skill. In this method, an attacker gains access to information socially.

Here is a story as an example. A clever hacker finds out that a certain employee of a company has a broken computer that they sent to IT to repair. The hacker calls the employee impersonating a new IT member and says that they are nearly finished with the repair, but they need her password to continue. If the disguise works, the employee will freely give over her password and the hacker is successful.

Social engineering is extremely popular due to the trusting nature of people and cunning tricks that hackers have gained through experience. Phishing is a type of social engineering involving moderate technical skill. Derived from fishing, phishing is the act of luring employees to give information through email. Phishing can employ malware to accomplish its goal as well. Another story follows. An accountant in the business office has finished payroll for the week, and they check their email to find an unread message.

The email comes from payroll adponline1. Your time clock readings did not come through correctly due to an authorization error. Please reply with your password for confirmation reads the body. The clock reads , and everyone is about to go home, so the accountant is eager to get along with their day. Replying to the message with their password, the employee goes home, not realizing they just gave their password away to a hacker who now has access to payroll information.

Phishing is highly effective and usually the initial cause of data breaches. This fact comes about because of the general believability of phishing emails, which often use personal information to look legitimate. Additionally, most employees are not computer savvy enough to understand the difference between a fake password request and a real one.

Recently, many companies have begun allocating funds to security training programs for employees. These courses specifically teach how to guard against phishing attempts. Despite this, the brightest hackers will always be able to con and socially engineer their way into sensitive information. Denial of Service DoS is an attack where multiple network requests are sent to a website or server in order to overload and crash it. DoS attacks can bring down infrastructure not prepared to handle large volumes of requests all at once.

A few hackers use DoS attacks as a distraction or added nuisance to cover up their actual attack as it happens. Hackers can send individual network requests through the Windows command prompt as seen below:. Here, just a few bytes of data are being sent to google. The -f makes sure the packet is not fragmented or broken up, and -l lets you input a packet size from , thereby increasing the size of the packet and the number of resources it consumes.

Now certainly the average hacker will never be able to take down a website such as google. Anti-hackers respond to a high volume of traffic coming from a single origin by blocking that IP from making further requests. They can also observe the type of traffic flooding the server and block packet-types that look like DoS spam.

Much more dangerous, DDoS distributed denial of service attacks are exponentially stronger than simple denial of service attacks. DDoS attacks involve attacking a server with multiple DoS attacks concurrently, each originating from various different locations. These attacks are much harder to block, because the original IP addresses are constantly changing, or there are just too many to block effectively.

Sonys newest game console at the time had just come out, and kids were opening them on Christmas day anxious to begin having fun. After hooking them up to the internet though, the disappointed kids were met with error messages stating that the Sony Network was down. Additionally, millions of new players were trying to access the service to play games and inquire about the down-time as well, which flooded the infrastructure even more.

This created an issue for Sony, as they could not just block all requests because some were legitimate customers. The issue was finally resolved when the DDoSing was stopped, but the situation proved just how easily a coordinated network attack can cripple large servers. Security Professionals have a few tools to prevent DDoS attacks from occurring. Load balancing hardware can spread out large requests among various servers, as to not bog down a single machine. They can also block the main sources of the attacks, pinging and DNS requests.

Some companies, such as CloudFlare, offer web software that can actively identify and emergently block any traffic it believes is a DDoS attempt. Performing DDoS attacks is relatively easy. The software can be seen below:.

Rather humorous, the childish gui hides powerful tools that allow unskilled, beginner hackers to have DDoS capabilities when coordinating with others. The most skilled attackers use botnets to increase their effectiveness. A well-written worm can infect data centers or universities with fast internet connections, and then these zombie computers all coordinate under the will of the hacker to attack a single target.

Fork bombs are a specific type of malicious code that works essentially like an offline DDoS. Instead of clogging network pipes, though, fork bombs clog processing pipes. Basically, a fork bomb is a process that runs itself recursively- that is the process copies itself over and over until the processor of a computer cannot keep up. If a hacker has access to a system and can run code, fork bombs are fairly deadly.

Actually, fork bombs are one of the simplest programs to write. Typing start into a command prompt will open up another command prompt. This can be automated as demonstrated and pictured below. What we have just done is create a batch file in the same programming language that command prompt uses. Running this file by right clicking its icon and then clicking run initiates the fork bomb, and it will continuously launch itself over and over until the computer cannot handle the resource strain.

Cracks can disable Digital Rights Management DRM, also known as copy protection on paid software so that full versions of software can be used without paying the full price. Skillful hackers achieve this by reverse-engineering code or finding exploits that let them run their own code. Encryption can be cracked as well, which leads to protected data being compromised since the attacker knows how to reverse the scrambling.

Password cracking can be achieved through brute force cracking and dictionary attacks. Brute force attacks attempt to guess a password by attempting every conceivable combination of letters and numbers. This was not terribly difficult in the days of DOS, where a password could only be 8 characters max.

Brute force attacks are long and arduous, but can be successful on a powerful computer given enough time. Hydra is an application that can attempt to brute force passwords. Dictionary attacks are slightly more sophisticated. They are similar to brute force attacks in that they try a large combination of passwords, but they differ in the fact that dictionary attacks use a database of words from a dictionary to operate.

This method works well at guessing passwords that are simple, such as one-word passwords. The application facilitating the dictionary attack will go through a large database of words starting at the top and try every one with slight variations to see if login is successful. The most clever dictionary attacks add words specific to the user to the database, such as their name, pets, work, birthday, etc Most people use personal information as a password, and adding this information to a dictionary attack increases effectiveness.

Certain versions of Windows contain the Remote Desktop application built in, which is designed for IT personnel to quickly and remotely connect to a faraway computer to control and perform maintenance on it. Remote desktop can be exploited of course and that is what we will do.

This tutorial is designed for two computers on the same network, but clever users may be able to expand this to the entire internet. Firstly, remote desktop needs to be enabled on both computers. Through control panel, click on System and then Remote settings. Ensure Allow Remote Assistance connections to this computer is checked. Apply settings. Then, you will need your colleagues IP address; you may recall this can be done by typing ipconfig into a command prompt and copying the IPv4 Address listed.

Now to initiate the remote control procedure, wait for the right time to surprise your friends and start the Remote Desktop Connection application on your computer you can search for it in the start menu. Type in the friends IP address and watch their surprised reaction when you move their mouse around! Not technically a hack, the remote desktop application CAN be used by hackers to spy on their targets.

For example, an unsuspecting user may check bank account information while the hacker watches silently. This gives the hacker a good idea of passwords and personal information, so be wary if the remote desktop application is enabled on your computer. Alternate operating systems are invaluable to a hacker for a variety of reasons. An easy way to try another operating system without overwriting the current one is to install the OS onto a bootable USB drive.

You will need to download the version that is compatible with your processor 32 bit, 64 bit, or ARM. If in doubt, download the. Plug in any USB storage stick with enough space for the Kali image. You might need 8GB or more depending on how big the image is at your time of reading.

Copy anything important off of the drive or you risk losing the data forever. Start Rufus, select your USB stick from in the Device tab, and keep the rest of the settings default. Refer to the image below for the settings I have used.

Then click the box beside it and locate the Kali. Triple check that the information is correct, and that your USB has no important files still on it. Rufus will take its time to finish. After finishing completely you are free to close out of the program. For the next part of the process, you will need to shut your computer down completely.

We need to access the BIOS of your computer. Continue reading on the next section and the process will continue. This startup firmware performs initialization, checks hardware, and provides options for the user to interact with their computer on the bare metal level. The specific keyboard button needed varies between motherboard manufacturers, so the user needs to pay attention to their screen for the first few moments after powering on. Every motherboard manufacturer will use their own custom interface, so this book cannot explain the specific steps for each motherboard model.

Basically, the goal is to find the boot order, which is the order in which the computer checks for bootable operating systems. Under normal conditions, the computer will boot from the internal hard drive first, which is the probably the operating system you are reading this from now.

Thirdly any removable devices are checked, but this specific computer would probably only get as far as the internal hard drive before finding the primary OS and booting. The computer should begin loading Kali Linux. Any problems with booting will give an error message that the user can internet search to troubleshoot, but more than likely the computer will boot into Kali successfully. The user can now use a whole new operating system! Kali Linux was chosen because of the tools that are available to it by default.

Kali is often the go-to OS for hackers due to the software included. Hackers and security professionals alike chose Kali, so it is encouraged that aspiring minds experiment with the OS. Here is an interesting point: through the bootable Kali USB you can also load your primary internal hard drive and view the contents. This means that you can access the files on your disk without booting into Windows.

Try opening up your internal hard drive and viewing your personal files. Sometimes it is shocking to realize how easy it is to view personal data without really turning on Windows. Now admittedly there are a few restrictions on accessing protected data, but this technique can be used to recover secret information from a computer that does not belong to a hacker.

Remember, if a computer is accessible physically, hackers have a significant advantage. They could always load up their favorite bootable OS, copy all data in the hard drive, and leave without ever logging into Windows. Even password protected or encrypted data is vulnerable to be copied. Since the attacker has a copy of the locked data, they can spend unlimited time trying to crack the password. Hacking is made easier with knowledge of the target infrastructure. One of the best ways to map out networks is through port scanning.

Scanning ports reveals open points in a network. Having certain ports open can offer unique exploits for hackers, so hackers usually port scan prior to deciding a point-ofentry. On Kali Linux the best tool to do this is nmap. The terminal will run the nmap program with the specified parameters and begin scanning the specified IP address for open ports. Traffic through the network is sent as little pieces of data called packets.

Each packet contains various bits, such as where it is coming from, where it is going, and whatever information is being sent. An unsecure network might be sending important information as plain, unencrypted text. Data sent this way is open for interception, and that is done through packet capture. Kali Linux has a built in application that does this- Wireshark. Wireshark is also available on Windows, for those that havent seen the benefits of Kali.

Packet capture is done by starting the application, changing your network cards mode to promiscuous, and starting the packet capture. Knowledgeable hackers can then view the packets that are captured and study them for information. Plain text will be visible if it is being sent that way, but encrypted text will be obscured. SQL is a programming language mostly used on web servers; an example of typical code is below.

SQL injections exploit poor coding on a websites login script through a clever injection of hacker-written code. Linux-based operating systems are generally more secure than their Windows counterparts, but the design philosophy behind UNIX-like kernels is that superusers administrators have total control with no questions asked.

Windows administrators generally have full control as well, but the operating. One very malicious attack involves exploiting the superusers permissions to delete the entire Linux operating system. While experimenting with the terminal in Kali Linux, you might have noticed that some commands require sudo as a preface.

Sudo invokes superuser permissions and allows systemchanging commands to run after the root password is input. Since the Linux kernel gives full controls to superusers, entering the following command will completely delete the operating system even while it is running. Under no circumstance should this command ever be run without permission.

This command will break the operating system! Even when testing this command on yourself, be prepared to face the consequences. You cannot blame this guide if something goes wrong. The anatomy of the command is as follows:. Thusly the entire system is deleted. If the computer doesnt immediately crash, it certainly will not boot after a shutdown. Learning to code is what separates script kiddies from actual elite hackers. Any aspiring hacker should take the time and learn the basics of programming in a variety of languages.

A variety of books exist on learning the language, and it is recommended for novices. Programming is an essential skill because most exploits involve using programming code to alter or bypass a system. Viruses and other malware are written with code also, and competent hacker-coders can write awe-inspiring applications such as ransomware. Ultimately the terminal is an application that can parse programming code one line at a time. Skillful hackers have mastered moving around the command prompt and terminal.

As previously stated, typing help into command prompt provides a list of commands. In Linuxs bash terminal a user can type man for manual to learn about commands. Manual pages are long and extremely detailed. However, many routers still use WEP by accident or default.

This gives hackers a common exploit, because WEP keys are crackable in a short amount of time. Then, they would open a terminal and use the airmon-ng application. Cracking WPA keys is much more time consuming due to the increased complexity, but WEP keys are easy targets for hackers to practice their emerging skills.

Curious hackers that are learning skills mentioned in this book must take care to protect themselves. Any serious infiltration attempt should only be attempted on a network in which the individual has permission to experiment and penetration test. Depending on the state or federal laws of the reader, various police action could be taken against an individual without explicit permission to perform this books demonstrations; astute hackers would already be wary of this.

All of this aside, it is beneficial for aspiring hackers to learn various methods to keep themselves safe from identification. Additionally, many hacktivists attempting to reveal the illegal activities of the company whistleblowing in which they work are monitored constantly. Only through some of the subjects we talk about below are these people safe from the oppressive nature that employers can inflict.

General security is not only a decent practice, security can protect those trying to protect others. For hackers, security safeguards against counter-hacks and keeps the field advancing. The largest difference between the average computer user and a security expert would be password complexity. While the average employee might use fido82 for their authentication key, security experts might use something less guessable such as Fsdf3 3.

Sharp hackers will take advantage of this fact when dictionary attacking passwords. Furthermore, some passwords and infrastructures will be too well-protected for any beginner to break. As skill increases, hackers become wiser. Sage-like hackers can produce new exploits seemingly out of thin-air, and it is assured that any person can achieve this level with enough practice.

With self-introspection, attackers and hactivists alike must live up to the standards that security experts live by. A strong personal password will nearly guarantee that a hacker cannot be counterhacked. As we will read in the next few sections, most hackers are persecuted because their devices are seized and easily counter-hacked to reveal nefarious activity.

Complex passwords will stand up to the robust supercomputers of federal governments. It is also recommended to never write passwords down or save them to a file somewhere. The best passwords are random, memorized, and secret. Furthermore, security experts will rarely repeat passwords.

Shockingly, plenty of users do just that- the average person uses the same password for banking, social media, forums, and online shopping! Since users rarely change passwords, savvy hackers can search these databases and locate user information. The passwords have most likely stayed the same, so the hacker has effortlessly gained access to an account. Conclusively, these leaks do not hurt users that change passwords regularly and keep them different for each account.

Encryption is essential for users wishing to protect any kind of data. Whether it is bad poetry, trade secrets, or a log of successful hacks, the files need to be encrypted if you want to guarantee that absolutely nobody should be able to read it. Snoopy roommates will therefore not be able to access the contents of the file without your expressed permission, and law enforcement officials that seize a computer reach a dead end when greeted with the prompt for a decryption password.

The process is done on Windows by right clicking a file, accessing the properties, clicking the advanced properties button in the Attributes section, then checking the Encrypt contents to secure data checkbox. A screenshot is visible below:. Every tip previously offered about passwords applies when choosing a decryption key.

It is essential to remember that if a beginner hacker could break the encryption, then certainly the combined intelligence power of a government could crack the key as well. Although obvious, not many novices realize that computer history can compromise an operation. For the uninitiated, browser history is a log of visited websites that is stored on a computer.

This list if often not encrypted, so a compromised list with how to hack on recent searches could be incriminating evidence when brought before a court. Most computer users disable browser history altogether for privacy reasons, and the process is not difficult. In Firefox, for example, the option is found under the Privacy tab of Options.

Disabling history is useful, but clearing out previous history might be needed as well. Once again the methodology varies, but the general process is to access the list of recently viewed websites and clear it through a button or command. History is not always exclusively stored locally.

Some ISPs Internet Service Providers, the organizations that provide users with internet access keep their own log of internet history. Police subpoenas would require them to hand over this history, which basically voids the care put into deleting internet history. There are ways around this fact however, which will be explicated in the following sections. The reason that ISPs know internet history is related to how hackers intercept packets to view information. Regular, unencrypted webpage traffic is predicable in how it looks and can therefore be captured.

Internet service providers sometimes keep this information by habit or law, so the only way to remove this annoyance is to disguise the data packets as something else entirely. Proxies allow users to do this. Normal packets will have the source and destination address clearly marked, while a packet sent through a proxy will not show the initial sender, only the proxy machine that relayed the packets.

On the ISPs end, it seems as though the computer is communicating with one address while they are really communicating with another. When a court subpoenas the ISP for information, there is no link between the source hacker and the ultimate destination target. Proxies can be used through a web browser hide. Proxies are most famously used in college networks to evade content filteringnobody can block your gaming websites if it looks like you are connecting to something else entirely.

Proxies do have their downsides, though. Law agencies with enough power can retrieve records from a proxy server and match up timestamps of your connections to piece together your internet history. Using multiple proxies only delays the inevitable, because if detectives have one proxy server compromised then they can just keep tracing them from proxy to proxy until the origin address is reached. Earlier in the book VPNs were explained to tunnel data through a network.

This service is usually used by employees to work from home, but hackers can exploit VPNs to work as an enhanced proxy of sorts. A typical VPN alters packets in such a way as to encrypt them and make them unreadable. The packets will not look like web activity, because they are sent through a different port entirely. This adds a layer of complexity to the packets that suits their use for security. For example, a public, open network is dangerous to check your bank statements on, because the packets can be readily intercepted and decoded by hackers.

Using a VPN, though, hides the data and allows normal, unrestricted use that is not in danger of being decrypted. Competent hackers will use the proxy-like qualities of a VPN to hide their true location. Usually these servers are moderately more secure from government agencies as well due to the added obscurity and difficulty of determining origin points. Internet pirates are quite fond of virtual private networks because they can conceal the illegal data they download as regular, protected data.

VPNs are usually created through 3rd party software. Organizations typically have private VPNs that act as relays only to company intranets, and these relays need company provided passwords. Tor bounces internet traffic across thousands of relays each with substantial encryption to ensure that the destination and origin of the packets are not clear. This software can be used by any individual wishing to hide their online activities, and it has proved decently effective. Somewhat of an advanced topic, browser fingerprinting is an elaborate anti-hacking technique where specific unique information contained in your web browser language packs, ad-ons, OS version, etc is retained by websites and used to identify users.

Most hackers use unique configurations with adblocking plugins, IP obscuring software, and other defining characteristics. The irony of this is that the uniqueness gained from protecting oneself becomes an identifying factor through device fingerprinting. Basically, the best way to stay hidden on the internet is to blend in with the crowd, so a unique configuration cannot be traced back to a hacker.

Since this is such an advanced and emerging topic, it is too early to say whether detectives and cyber investigators are catching criminals with this methodology. Throughout this book some software has been referred to as free. The actual correct term for the software is FOSS free and open source software.

Programs that are FOSS are not only monetarily free, they are also transparent in their coding. Open-source refers to the fact that the coding of the program is visible at any time, whereas proprietary softwares code is not visible ever. This fact is important; if code is not visible, there is no way to know exactly what the program is doing or who it is sending data to. Proprietary software, such as Googles web browser Chrome, unquestionably sends data back to Google.

Firefox has transparent code, so at any time programmers can read through the source and know for certain whether Firefox sends data back. Hackers and security-minded people tend to gravitate towards FOSS because of its more safe nature. After all, nobody knows exactly what is going on under the hood of some dubious proprietary programs. There might exist backdoors for governments that would expose good-natured hackers or whistleblowers within closed-source software, so the best security is always done through well maintained free and open source software.

Whistleblowers and other high level leakers see: Edward Snowden require the utmost privacy with zero chance of linking an action to a person. Many professionals decide to do their private doings through throwaway devices. A throwaway is a computer that is only used for the private doings. It is usually bought with cash, has no mention of the buyers name, is never used to log into accounts associated with the buyer, and is used in a public place such as a coffee shop. If used correctly, there should not be a single shred of evidence pointing back to the buyer.

It is important that throwaways be bought with cash because a bill of sale with a name on it is an undeniable link. It is for these reasons that hackers rarely, if ever, use credit cards for purchases. Cash is. Buying used or from yard sales removes any monitoring capabilities an organization might have had.

Signing into personal accounts leaves traces on the device, and using personal internet connections will lead back to the IP registered to you by the ISP. Coffee Shops, McDonalds, libraries, and internet cafes usually offer free internet without signing up- these places are the locations of choice for anonymity. If something must be bought online, bitcoin is an anonymous way to do so.

Bitcoin is a virtual currency that isnt attached to a name. Criminals in the past have used bitcoin to purchase illegal substances on the darknet, which proves how anonymous bitcoin can be. Hackers must cultivate their skill through practice and studying. To gain skill, you must study networking basics, security concepts, programming languages, cryptography, and much more. Endurance and tenacity mold the brightest into outstanding hackers, so lifelong learning should be an aspiration for any hacker.

Your journey continues with great hope and promise. I hope this book was able to help you to understand some of the core concepts revolving around security, hacking, and counter-hacking. The scope of the subject is so large that this book could not ever hope to cover everything. Even though the time spent on various subjects in this book was brief, I encourage you to research them further.

Remember that security and hacking are relevant today more than ever. This book encourages curious minds to inspire to adhere to the hackers manifesto and be guilty of no crime save curiosity. This book does not encourage illegal activity, it encourages exploration and entertainment.

Finally, if you enjoyed this book, please take the time to share your thoughts and post a review on Amazon. Itd be greatly appreciated! Unlock your Android and iPhone devices. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law.

Thank you for downloading the book Hacking University: Sophomore Edition. If you are reading this, than either you have already completed Hacking University: Freshman Edition or you believe that you already have the hacking skills necessary to start at level 2. This eBook is the definitive guide for building your hacking skill through a variety of exercises and studies. As explained in the previous book, hacking is not a malicious activity.

Hacking is exploring the technology around us and having fun while doing so. This books demonstrations will mainly focus on unlocking or jailbreaking a variety of devices, which is in no way illegal. However, performing unintended servicing or alterations of software and hardware may possibly void any warranties that you have. Continue at your own risk, as we hold no fault for damage that you cause. However, if you wish to gain real control over the phones and game consoles that you own, continue reading to see how top hackers employ their trade.

Phone hacking, also known as Phreaking, has a peculiar history dating back to the s. Phreaking was discussed at length in the 1st book, so it will only be briefly recalled here. After phone companies transitioned from human operators to automatic switchboards, a dedicated group of experimental phreakers found the exact frequencies and tones that can hack the switchboards. The act grew into a hobby and culture of individuals who could make long distance calls for free or eavesdrop on phone lines.

When landlines became more complicated and cell phones took over, phreaking died out to be replaced by computer hacking. The first cellphone hackers simply guessed the passwords for voicemail-boxes because the cell phone owners rarely ever changed their PIN from the default. With a simple number such as or as a passcode, hackers can effortlessly gain access to the voicemail-box and can listen in on any message.

Another technique, known as spoofing, allows an attacker to change the number that shows on the caller-ID. By impersonating a different number, various attack strategies with social engineering possibilities are available. With the advent of flip-phones mobile devices became smaller and more efficient. Although some dedicated hackers could flash new ROMs onto stolen phones or read text messages with complicated equipment, the early cell phones did not have too much sensitive data to steal.

It wasnt until phones became more advanced and permanently tied to our online life that cell phone hacking became a lucrative field. With the early s Blackberry phones and the later s iPhones advancing cellular technology to be on par with personal computers, more of our information was accessible from within our pockets.

Security is often sacrificed for freedom and ease-of-use, so hackers were able to exploit the weak link of mobile technology fairly easily. How are hackers able to break into the mini-computers in our pockets? Through mostly the same techniques that hackers use to break into regular desktop PCs- software vulnerabilities, bugs, social engineering, and password attacks.

Most mobile hacks are low-level stories of celebrities getting their private pictures stolen or risqu messages being leaked. Typically these attacks and hacks come about because of the technological ineptitude of celebrities and their less-than-best security habits. Every once in a while, though, the spotlight will shine upon big-name jobs, such as Hillary Clintons email server leaks, or Edward Snowden and his disclosure of classified government information.

Events like these show just how critical security is in all facets of digital life- and a persons phone should never be the device that facilitates a hacking attack on them. Perhaps the most widely discussed phone hack in recent news would be the San Bernardino terrorist attack of and the resulting investigation. After a couple killed 16 and injured 24 more in the California town, both assailants were killed in the aftermath and an investigation began of the twos background.

Farook, one of the shooters, had a county-issued iPhone 5C that investigators believed would contain additional evidence surrounding the attacks. Additionally, having access to the device would mean that the FBI could investigate any communications into and out of the phone, possibly revealing any active terrorist groups or influences. However, the iPhone was password protected and up to date with iOSs advanced security features that guaranteed the government could not access the contents of the phone.

Apple refused, stating such a backdoor would provide hackers, viruses, and malware a vector through which to target all iOS devices indiscriminately. Tensions ramped up between the FBI and Apple, but Apple stood its ground long enough for the government to seek help elsewhere. Finally on March 28th, , the phone was cracked by 3rd party group of hackers for a million US dollars. How the group successfully broke the unbreakable is not fully known, but it is believed that a zero-day vulnerability a vulnerability that nobody knew about was used to gain access to the iOS.

The whole scenario showed that the government is not above civilian privacy- they will use all resources at their disposal to gain access to our devices. While most agree that the phone needed to be unlocked as a matter of national security, it still holds true that if Apple were to comply with the government than groups like the NSA and FBI would have direct links to all iOS devices and their data a clear breach of trust.

Mobile phone security will continue to be a hot issue in the coming years, so learning how to protect yourself by studying how hackers think will save you in the long run. Mobile devices including phones and laptops are especially vulnerable to the common IT problems. However the portability of the handy devices only amplifies the variety of attack vectors.

Wi-Fi points often exist in coffee shops, public eateries, and libraries. Free and open Wi-Fi is always helpful, except they open up mobile devices to data interception and man-in-the-middle attacks. For example, say a hacker creates a public Wi-Fi point. By naming it something inconspicuous such as Starbucks free Wi-Fi, people will be sure to connect with their phones and laptops. At this point, the hacker has installed Kali Linux refer to Freshman Edition for more info and also connected to the compromised internet.

They run a packet capture program and steal online banking information in real time while the victims thinks nothing is wrong. Security minded individuals should always remember that open Wi-Fi hotspots are dangerous, and they should only ever be connected to for simple browsing or with a VPN running. Social engineering plays a large part in mobile hacking as well.

Phone users usually forget that phones can get viruses and malware just as PCs can, so the user is often off-guard and willing to click links and download Trojan horses when browsing from their phone. Now youll need to deliver the exploit to your victim. You could come up to them and ask hey, have you tried Starbucks free game app for Android?

These legitimized blocks are then added to all the nodes and become a part of the complete blockchain. Miners get rewarded or paid with tokens like bitcoins for the work they do. Since miners play such an important role in cryptocurrency it makes sense to spend some time understanding their function. Technically any node in the blockchain network can be a miner. This is because there is an absence of centralized control to delegate tasks.

However, for the express purpose of preventing misuse and abuse of the cryptocurrency legacy, it was imperative that a robust mechanism exists that keeps strong and powerful checks on such abuse and misuse. Without this checking mechanism decentralized though it might be , it is possible that someone can create numerous of peers in the P2P network and create forged transactions.

So, transactions have to be vetted and confirmed by people who know how to do it. So, Satoshi Nakamoto laid rules for anyone who wishes to become a miner. The potential miner will have to invest some amount of work so that they can qualify as miners. Miners need to find the hash that matches the block under consideration to the previous block in the Blockchain.

Bitcoin cryptocurrency uses the SHA Hash algorithm for transaction confirmations. The SHA is the foundation of a cryptographic puzzle that miners compete with each other to solve. Only when a miner solves this cryptographic puzzle, can a transaction block become valid. And the difficulty of this puzzle increases with the increase in the number of nodes in the network.

Thus, only a specific number of blocks that translate to cryptocurrency can be created and mined in any given period of time. The transactions are irreversible. Once, the confirmation of a transaction is done by a miner, it becomes cast in stone and can never be reversed by anyone. Only the pseudonyms are known and recognized. You can track the transaction flow but it is not possible to connect the identity of the users in the real world.

The transactions happen almost instantaneously and are global in nature. It does not matter when you choose to make the payment to your neighbor or someone in another part of the globe. The transaction time and confirmation details are independent of geography.

The transactions are extremely secure as they are confirmed based on the system of public key cryptography. Only a user who has a private key can transmit cryptocurrency through the system. A powerful cryptographic system combined with the magical number of large numbers make it computationally unfeasible to crack or hack into the system. There is no gatekeeper to the cryptocurrency system and anyone can join. It is downloadable software that can be used by all for free.

There is a controlled supply of tokens in any cryptocurrency system. In the Bitcoin system, tokens are available till the final token is used up somewhere in The currency supply decreases with time. Cryptocurrencies are like money in the form of gold. This is quite in contrast to the money you hold in your account which works like a debt. The present banking system works like an I.

Potential effects of cryptocurrencies on the present banking system Cryptocurrencies are pseudonymous, permission-less and irreversible. This approach to money and monetary policies can attack the present banking and financial systems of the world. There is a controlled and limited supply of tokens in a cryptocurrency system that is outside the control of any government or financial institution. Cryptocurrencies with their revolutionary approach to managing and handling money have the power to be the start of a new economic order in the world.

While the first application of Blockchain technology developed by Satoshi Nakamoto was in cryptocurrency, today, this amazing technology has spread its wings and soared to other worlds as well. This chapter is dedicated to the use of Blockchain technology in the field of social media with specific reference to Steemit.

Steemit is a blockchain powered social media network that was launched in March Steemit is developed by Daniel Larimer and Ned Scott. While the former is the founder of BitShares, a decentralized exchange for share trading, the latter is a financial analyst. Steemit has been developed as a social media network to allow people to create and post content.

The blockchain technology that Larimer used to build Steemit is called Graphene. Graphene allows for developing and deploying blockchains that are specific to an application. The most explosive aspect of Steemit is the concept of paying people who contributed blogs and posts and to those who voted on blogs and posts through this social media platform. During the initial months of the launch, Steemit only saw a few miners who contributed content.

Then, what happened on 4th July changed the way Steemit was perceived. Until this date, people who were promised that they will be paid for creating blogs, posts, and upvotes would get paid actually got their money. The rewards for the posts on the social media blockchain were given out on 4th July So how does it work exactly?

Steemit works like a blogging social media site that pays you. Other Steemit users or steemers will vote on your post. Kind of like a thumbs up and thumbs down system. The more thumbs up you have, the more you will get paid. The more comments and interactions you have with people, the more your posts are worth, the more your profile is perceived as relevant, and ultimately, you can actually earn hard cash with this system in place. Think of about this possibility.

You create a post about something that went viral. Sounds farfetched right? Of course, it takes time to become established, but once you get there, it could be actually a very lucrative hobby. Futhermore, the SEO significance of Steemit on Google and other search engines have really changed the social media game.

More on this later. The core of Steemit is Steem, the cryptocurrency that is very similar to Bitcoin. Like all other cryptocurrencies, Steem is fungible, transferable and freely movable. Yet, this cryptocurrency is available in two different forms under two different smart contracts. Depending on your need, you can sign the smart contract for Steem Power or Steem Dollar. Steem Power — offers leverage as well as utility. Steem Power adds power to your vote. That means to say, the more Steem Power you have, the stronger your vote is on the Steemit platform.

Steemit Power is a way to encourage users to remain committed to the platform for a longer period of time With Steem Power, you will be able to invest your money immediately but you are expected to wait for some time to get returns on your investment.

Steem Power smart contracts can be compared to what venture capitalists do. Steem Power can be converted based to Steem, the base currency, through weekly conversions. Steem Dollars — This works like a debt instrument. Steem Dollars works exactly like a debt instrument inasmuch that this smart contract will not be able to leverage any value increase of Steem.

The lock-in period is compensated by an interest payment that is set at the time of signing the Steem Dollar smart contract. How to earn rewards or Steem on Steemit? There are two ways to earn rewards on Steem namely writing a blog post and by voting for a good post. Individuals creating good quality content gets paid and individuals giving votes to posts and blogs also get paid. Every day, Steemit currency units are newly created and distributed to the people who engage on their social media platform.

So, the more you engage, the more you can get paid. Because Steemit is so new and so enticing, we are people making a ton of money with Steemit. The future of all social medias could be funnled into this system of paying for quality content. For this reason alone, Google has adopted a process in which rewards Steemit users; not necessarily by money but in SEO. SEO or search engine optimization is a term in which can be explained simply as, how your website or anything in the web can be ranked in a search engine like Google.

Believe it not, you use this everyday. For example, you want to know what are the best deals for laptops during Black Friday this year in November. Because profitable websites highly dependent on ranking in the top page or second page in Google, SEO now becomes a priority. So how can companies, bloggers, websites, forums, or anyone with web content want to monetize their websites better, all the while by competing with millions of related searches?

This is because Google has included Steemit in its algorithm as a highly reputable website. It views it as a highly reputable website because Steemit ties in currency to your blog posts. Payment for content creators — As a content creator, you must endeavor to get more number of votes for your posts and blogs. It is important to remember here that all votes do not have the same voting power.

Here are some of the ways votes can have different powers and values:. This has led many content creators to chase big-value votes by trying to convince big Steem Power holders to vote for their content. Payment for voters - Now, for people earning rewards by giving upvotes, Steemit works like this.

If a post that you have voted for does well, then you earn more than another post, which does not do so well. This approach of incentivizing ensures that you give your vote only to those posts that you truly believe are of high quality. Another interesting point about votes for posts is that if you chose to vote for more than one post, then your second vote loses value depending on the time that has lapsed between the two votes.

Essentially, multiple votes from the same account results in the reduction of the value of each subsequent vote. A security-less Blockchain has no value as no one will have faith in the system. The proof-of-stake algorithm for Steemit is taken from the BitShares project that Daniel Larimer developed. Steemit uses a delegated proof-of-work algorithm.

Witnesses are the miners in Steemit. The system of delegation can be comparable to a democratic republic way of voting for Congressmen on whom the voters place the responsibility to govern the country. It is important to remember here that if witnesses do not do their jobs correctly, then they can be and are replaced with a better worker by the community.

There is a total of 21 witnesses responsible for verifying and confirming blocks each time a block is created. From this list of 21, 19 are voted for in the manner described above. The 20th is a random witness who may not have made it to the top 19 and the 21st witness is a typical miner performing the typical proof-of-work confirmations. This combination of witnesses is formed so as to provide the Blockchain technology based Steemit social media platform the most reliable form of verifications and confirmations.

Despite the presence of skeptics, Steemit is growing in popularity. The three currency units of Steem, Steem Power, and Steem Dollar continue to attract new users every day to the platform. While the social media itself is attracting hundreds of users daily, Blockchain technologists are also creating plenty of software to track vote-chasing users, to sell and buy goods on Steemit, etc.

You can read umpteen stories of successful Steemit earners. Whether the excitement will be lasting or not is for time to tell. But, as of now, Steemit is a highly popular and trendy social media platform that is powered by Blockchain technology. As Blockchain technology is slowly gaining ground in the financial segment of the world, many banks and financial institutions are also investing resources to research and create customer-centric products using this technology.

Deutsche Bank — is exploring options to use Blockchain technology for paying and settling fiat currencies and asset registries. The bank is also looking to leverage the power of Blockchain technology for its derivative contracts, AML and KYC registries, for regulatory reporting, etc. The German bank has been researching Blockchain technology for such activities in its labs in the Silicon Valley, London, and Berlin as per a July report. EBA — As per a report released by Euro Banking Association EBA in May , it was exploring and studying the effects of Blockchain technology on the payment and banking scenario in the next years.

In the report, EBA confirmed taking note of how this technology can be used by banks to cut down audit and governance costs, to provide improved and secure products and to decrease time to market as well. The latter is a bitcoin company based in Singapore. These events sponsored by banks reflect the interest that Blockchain technology is generating in the banking sector. LHV Bank — This bank has reportedly started work on Blockchain technology-based systems such as an app called Cuber Wallet that uses colored coins.

The bank is working on creating a digital security system based on blockchain technology. Fidor Bank — has collaborated with Kraken to build a digital currency exchange in the European Union. The bank also collaborated with Ripple Labs to offer money transfer services using Blockchain technology.

Barclays Bank — has two labs in London that are open for conducting Blockchain technology experiments by coders, businesses, and entrepreneurs in the field. Barclays has collaborated with Safello to develop multiple Blockchain powered banking services. It is becoming evident that Blockchain technology is catching the interest of large banks, financial institutions, and trading exchanges.

There is a lot of experimental work going on wherein commodities such as diamond, gold, and silver can also be brought into the Blockchain technology realm. Concepts are being worked on to create systems based on Blockchain technology to help in elections, to establish ownership of real-estate properties, etc. There are numerous companies worldwide that are offering Blockchain technology applications for a variety of purposes for both financial and non- financial needs.

In the banking and finance sector, the areas where Blockchain technology is catching the attention of the leaders include remittances and trading platforms. Many banks want to send and receive money faster, in a more secure manner, and with reduced costs as compared to the present system that they are using. Similarly, trading platforms are very encouraging about using Blockchain technology. Even in non-financial uses, Blockchain technology is slowly surely gaining ground. Many companies are keen on using the smart contracts offered by Blockchain technology.

Blockchain technology, thus, seems to have caught the fancy of multiple players in the financial segment and a few players in the non-financial segment as well. Like I said in the beginning, many technological experts believe that it is likely Blockchain technology has the power to become the next revolution after the Internet. Just like the worldwide web, Blockchain technology can disrupt the conventional working and operations of certain industries and with time and effort, the technology has the potential to take on the entire world by storm.

Thus, it is quite natural that entities and individuals favoring the outcome of this technology and those who are not in favor are at butting heads with each other. Moreover, like most things in the world, Blockchain technology too has a range of benefits and also a range of limitations that need to be worked on before it is able to reach its full potential.

This chapter is dedicated to studying and understanding the benefits and limitations of Blockchain technology. No need for an intermediary between related parties — Blockchain technology allows two parties to make an exchange without the need of any third-party intermediary to oversee the exchange process. And this exchange takes place without any risk to any of the parties concerned. Users are highly empowered — All users in the Blockchain are completely empowered to control all aspects of the exchange and their own privacy as well.

The data that is distributed is of high quality — The data in the blockchain is consistent, complete, accurate, timely, and is also widely distributed. Longevity, Reliability, and Durability — As there is no centralized version of the information in Blockchain technology, the system will not have any core point of failure.

This increases its ability to withstand malicious attacks making the data more durable and reliable and the entire system more sustainable than the conventional centralized information points of today. The integrity of data is achieved through the process itself — the integrity of the transactions on a Blockchain is achieved through the process itself. That is to say, transactions are executed as per the existing protocols that are put in place and hence there is no need for a third party assessor.

Transactions on a Blockchain are immutable — Once a transaction is confirmed on a Blockchain, it becomes immutable and cannot be changed or altered or deleted. Transactions are highly transparent — Transactions in a Blockchain are highly transparent as all parties can view them. The ecosystem is highly simplified — As all the transactions are added to a single public ledger, there is no need to maintain multiple ledgers and records resulting in a simple ecosystem doing away with the complexities and clutter of multiple ledger systems.

Financial transactions can happen much faster than in the conventional banking system — Money transfers between banks across different countries can take days in the present conventional banking system. Transaction costs are lower — The elimination of third party intermediary and the associated overhead costs brings down the overall transaction costs in Blockchain technology powered systems.

It works both ways in both the front and end user. By eliminating a third party, seamless transactions can occur, and accountability ultimately falls in the service; not on a third party or consumer. It is a very nascent technology — Blockchain technology is just about raising its head in the commercial aspects of the human world. It is still in the rudimentary stages of development.

The regulatory status of Blockchain technology is still uncertain — As of now, currencies are regulated and controlled by the government. Such kind of regulatory control or regulation does not exist for Blockchain technology and hence is not easily accepted by financial institutions.

The next chapter deals with the legality aspect of Blockchain technology in detail. There is a need for huge computational power - Presently, a miner in the Blockchain needs a huge amount of computational power to try nearly thousand trillion solutions every second to validate or confirm transactions on the Blockchain. This kind of computational power is really stupendous and thus could be a big limitation when we need a large number of transactions confirmed and approved continually such as in large banking scenario.

Fear of privacy, control, and security — Despite reassurances that Blockchain technology is computationally unfeasible to hack into and thus privacy, control, and security will not be compromised, certain cyber security issues still need to be addressed before people find the confidence to hand over personal data to Blockchain technology-supported systems. There are many integration concerns that exist in Blockchain technology — In order to implement products based on Blockchain technology, the existing systems require a lot of changes or need to be replaced entirely which could deter companies from accepting these solutions.

Companies need to strategize their transitions slowly and over a long period of time. There is a paradigm shift to decentralized systems — A paradigm shift in outlook is required from both operators and users to change from centralized systems to decentralized systems. It could take some time for this kind of cultural adoption to happen across the world. High initial costs — While transaction costs are bound to come down in the future, initial capital costs are quite high and can be a deterrent for many companies.

Despite these challenges, there are multiple companies spread across the world, which are investing time and resources to work on solutions that are powered by Blockchain technology. Here is a small list of companies that are into Blockchain technology working on providing solutions for various applications:.

As Blockchain technology is becoming more widespread and increasing in popularity across various industries, there are legality issues that are cropping up and need to be addressed on an ongoing basis. A robust legal framework is the backbone of trust and user-confidence in any new system. This chapter is dedicated to giving you some of these legal impediments that need to be overcome before Blockchain technology can be accepted more wholeheartedly accepted by the general public.

Financial transfers — Today, digital currencies are being used as mediums of exchange and as speculative investments. It is highly feasible to use Blockchain technology to perform speedier and more secure financial transfers such as global remittances, currency exchanges, settlement and clearing of payments, and interbank transfers. However, before this technology is brought into mainstream financial markets and the banking sector, Blockchain technology needs to be incorporated into the present set of financial regulatory system so that any potential disputes can be amicably settled under law.

Transactions requiring multiple signatures would need to be redefined in the financial regulatory system — Blockchain technology does support transactions that need multiple signatures. Refunding the money lying in the escrow account requires two of the three parties to sign off. The existing laws governing the physical control of escrow accounts cannot suffice for transactions done via blockchain technology systems.

Hence, new laws have to be written for such multi-signature transactions. Colored coins or merchant-issued currencies have little or no regulatory control - Such currencies are very blurred in the present regulatory system.

However, the value of the bitcoin remains the same. Hence, resulting product ends up getting dual credit creating double entries for the same bitcoin that will lead to disputes and confusions. These types of transactions need further study before being brought into the mainstream.

Issues in intellectual property — Blockchain technology will be able to offer a low-cost and secure medium to track and record intellectual property. However, legal systems need to undergo paradigm shift before implementing the systems in the general public arena. The present legal system focuses on the contract between the buyer and seller, which can then be sold further down. However, with Blockchain technology-based systems, there could arise issues that are applicable in case of digital products.

For example, in the case of a first sale, a purchaser who has bought the property can sell it to someone else. However, with digital files, the problem lies in the fact that it is difficult or impossible to determine whether the first reseller or the original purchaser sold the original file to the second purchaser or only a copy of the original file.

In Blockchain technology, this problem can be overcome as digital copies can be verified and confirmed individually so that sellers transfer the full rights of the original file. However, these have to be incorporated into our regulatory system before Blockchain technology becomes implementable in the intellectual property market.

Issues in data transfer and storage — Blockchain technology allows you to create systems to transfer and store data digitally in a decentralized manner. For example, identity data can be easily stored and verified through a Blockchain ledger keeping the original identity safe from theft and offering anonymity in the form of a digital pseudonym. However, such verifications could raise worries whether privacy is possible in such systems. Moreover, when you create large data repositories, concerns of a breach will always linger.

Despite the fact that cryptographic ledgers are perceived as being very secure and private, there could be a possibility that personal information from another source is exposed and if that can be related to this Blockchain then privacy concerns will become genuine and not a mere fear factor of a technically ignorant individual. Additionally, it is possible that data from Blockchains are collected and analyzed by a powerful computing device.

If such a thing happens, then these transactions or blocks can be easily tracked and identified in spite of being in a pseudonymous ledger system. Thus, these identity and data thefts are a cause for concern when dealing with transferring and storing data through Blockchain technology systems.

Legal issues with smart contracts — As you already know by now, smart contracts are one of the core principles of Blockchain technology. Smart contracts are programmed arrangements that are automatically enforced upon the user and are self-executing in nature. These contracts exist only in the online mode and help in making payments in social media platforms such as Steemit or to sell digital goods through activation codes that are activated through Blockchain technology systems only after payment is received for the goods.

However, smart contracts do have some unanswered legal issues. This aspect is in complete contrast to the classic contract laws that require a deliberate approval from the user before being enforced. Smart contracts are quite possibly not cancellable or voidable thereby making it an unconscionable and coerced contract.

A second cause of concern is related to the privacy aspect of Blockchain technology. Any contract between two parties will be able on the Blockchain for public viewing and thus, third parties could potentially track and take undue advantage by watching the movement of the contract. Issues with decentralized organization of Blockchain technology — While the freedom from having to depend on a third-party centralized repository holder can reduce costs and undue interference, a major concern with regard to this kind of approach is how to raise and manage liability issues that crop up in the transaction.

Who will be ultimately responsible for smooth functioning of the entire system? Who can be held responsible if any law is broken? In the same way, legal status of the entities will also in question. Issue of securities through Blockchain technology — There have been companies that have developed and used Blockchain technology to issue securities to the general public. Companies have also raised funds through sale of securities in the form of native tokens though these sales have been given the profile not so much as company securities but rather as sales to access technology.

Whether all tokens can be treated securities cannot have a simple answer. The answer is dependent on multiple factors including but not limited to the process and other aspects of the sale and the clauses in the smart contracts.

As these choices are new in the market, regulators and exchange controllers will have to sit down and formulate new laws or change old ones to incorporate these novels yet not fully explored technological advances. Legal Issues and Blockchain technology: the way forward - While legal issues are being fought out and new changes are being made to the legal framework, it is an undeniable fact that Blockchain technology will not stop generating interest among users and operators.

Blockchain technology can change the way we do business and exchange data and goods in the market. It is quite possible that an entirely new segment in the legal framework may be created to fit in the new possibilities and innovations that Blockchain technology offers to us. Yes, legal issues will continue to be at the core of this technology.

Yet, the absence of an ideal legal framework should not deter users, operators, and technological experts from trying to explore new opportunities in this realm. Conclusion and Resources. Blockchain technology gets its name from the concept of cryptographic blocks that are employed to validate and confirm transactions.

The validated blocks are linked together to form a chain ad hence the name Blockchain technology. The data in the Blockchain is accessible to everyone who has access to a copy of it. However, no one can change or alter or delete any data or blocks in the chain. Blocks are validated by solving cryptographic puzzles that become increasingly complex as the number of nodes increases in the Blockchain network.

When the puzzle is solved, the block gets validated and becomes an immutable part of the Blockchain. The people who solve these puzzles are called miners who get rewarded for their work of solving the puzzle and validating the blocks. In this concluding chapter, let us summarize the key components of Blockchain technology. Distributed database — Blockchain technology works on the concept of a distributed database wherein all the information and data are held in multiple copies across computers or nodes connected through a network.

This information is continually updated and reconciled all through the multiple copies. This is because the Blockchain is not controlled by any one single entity and has no one particular point of failure making it nearly impossible for hackers to get in. Blockchain technology is incorruptible and transparent — The data is embedded in the system and is available for public viewing and hence is highly transparent.

It would require an immensely huge amount of computing power to corrupt a Blockchain hence making it computational unfeasible to corrupt it. Blockchain technology uses a network of computing nodes to make up the Blockchain - Each node gets a copy of the Blockchain which gets automatically downloaded when you join the Blockchain. Blockchain technology promotes a decentralized concept — The technology works on data being decentralized and available as multiple copies in all the connected nodes.

This decentralized concept enhances the security of the data as there is no one point of vulnerability that can be broken to get all the data. Blockchain technology uses encryption technology for protection — While the traditional computing system using usernames and passwords for identity protection, Blockchain technology uses encryption keys for protection.

It uses a combination of public and private keys to embed data securely in a block before adding it to the parent block. Blockchain technology can have immense potential in myriad applications and is not just limited to cryptocurrencies and banking products. Despite legal hurdles and other teething problems that are part of any new technology, many experts are of the firm belief that Blockchain technology has the potential to change the way the world does business and communicate with each other.

Many technological experts called it the Blockchain revolution and not merely Blockchain technology! I hope this book has given you sufficient reason to learn more and understand the concept of Blockchain technology better. So, go ahead and take that important to leverage the power of a new and yet untapped technology and see what opportunities it can bring to you!

Cody is a proud, savvy, and ethical hacker from New York City. He aspires to work for the United States government as a security hacker, but also loves teaching others about the future of technology. Isaac firmly believes that the future will heavily rely computer "geeks" for both security and the successes of companies and future jobs alike. In his spare time, he loves to analyze and scrutinize everything about the game of basketball.

Hacking University: Freshman Edition. This document is geared towards providing exact and reliable information in regards to the topic and issue covered. The publication is sold with the idea that the publisher is not required to render accounting, officially permitted, or otherwise, qualified services.

If advice is necessary, legal or professional, a practiced individual in the profession should be ordered. In no way is it legal to reproduce, duplicate, or transmit any part of this document in either electronic means or in printed format. Recording of this publication is strictly prohibited and any storage of this document is not allowed unless with written permission from the publisher. All rights reserved. The information provided herein is stated to be truthful and consistent, in that any liability, in terms of inattention or otherwise, by any usage or abuse of any policies, processes, or directions contained within is the solitary and utter responsibility of the recipient reader.

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All trademarks and brands within this book are for clarifying purposes only and are the owned by the owners themselves, not affiliated with this document. Have you ever wondered if hacking is right for you? Differentiate yourself and learn what it means to become a hacker!

This book will provide you the ultimate guide in how to actually start and begin how to learn Computer Hacking. I firmly believe with the right motivation, ethics, and passion, anyone can be a hacker. Believe it or not there are just a few of the topics covered in this book. I want to thank you and congratulate you for downloading the book Hacking University: Freshman Edition. This book is the definitive starters guide for information on hacking.

Whether you are a security professional or an aspiring hacktivist, this book provides you with definitions, resources, and demonstrations for the novice. Hacking is a divisive subject, but it is a matter of fact that hacking is used for benevolent purposes as well as malevolent. Hacking is needed, for otherwise how would incompetence and abuse be brought to light?

Experimenting with systems is inherently fun, and it offers exceptionally gifted people an outlet for their inquisitiveness. This book continues those ethics; the demonstrations made available here are written in good faith for the sake of education and enjoyment. Nonetheless federal governments hack each other to steal classified information, groups hack corporations on a political agenda, and individuals exploit other people for revenge.

These examples do not represent hackers, and the aforementioned scenarios are not what good-natured, curious hackers would do. This book does not condone these types of hacks either. As a disclaimer, though- nobody is responsible for any damage caused except for yourself. Some demonstrations in this book are potentially dangerous, so by performing them you are doing so willingly of your own accord and with explicit permission from the computer and network owners.

Therefore, you will be able to protect yourself more fully from their threats. Lastly, if you do not develop your knowledge in this field, you will inevitably fall behind. Complacency leads to vulnerability in the computer world, so this book could be the one that clues you in on just how important security and hacking are.

Studying the history of the art form will give you an appreciation and background, so we will begin there. Read on and begin your career of security. Chapter 1: History and Famous Hacks. Hacking has a rich a varied history beginning far back in ancient times. Cryptography and encryption passwords were used by Roman armies. A commander would need to send orders across the battlefield and would do so by writing instructions on a piece of paper.

Foot-soldiers could run the papers back and forth and thus one side would gain an advantage with increased knowledge. Undoubtedly the soldiers would sometimes be captured and the secret orders would fall into the wrong hands. To combat this, commanders began obscuring the text by transforming and moving around the letters. This process, known as encryption, succeeded in confusing enemy commanders until they were forced to attempt to break the encryption.

Employing mathematical methods and clever tricks to un-obfuscate the orders, the enemy would sometimes be able to decode the text. Therefore, ancient people were hacking long before computers were even conceived! However, when most people imagine early hacking, they are usually drawn to the wildly interesting story of the Enigma Machine. The Enigma machine was a device used famously in Nazi Germany during the 2nd World War to encrypt and decrypt war messages. Much like the ancient Romans, the German messages were obfuscated and transformed before sending so that if the message might be intercepted, the opposition would be unable to read the highly secretive text.

Polish cryptologists were the ones to initially break the code, but Germany countered later in the decade by improving on the design and making Enigma far more complicated. The rein of Enigma continued throughout the war. As it usually is with encryption methods though, Enigma was improved again and made unbreakable until when Turing assisted the Navy and produced a faster decryption machine.

Bombe machines used rotating drums and electrical signals to analyze the scrambled messages and output the correct configuration of dials and plugs that would result in a decoded text. Bombes could almost be considered some of the earliest computers due to their mechanical and electrical complexity. With the encryption method clear, Enigma became mostly useless baring another redesign. The allied ability to decode Enigma messages definitely played a large part in their success.

After World War II, an immense amount of research and calculations went into developing projectile missiles and nuclear weapons. The Cold War essentially facilitated the development of modern electrical computers because electronic devices could perform mathematics at a speedy pace. Supercomputers were used in universities and corporations around the world, and these early devices were susceptible to intrusion and hacking as well.

Phreaking began after phone companies switched from human operators to automated switches. Automated switches determined where to route a phone call based on the tonal frequency generated by telephones when numbers were dialed. Tones in succession dialed numbers with automatic switches, and the phone user would have their call connected to the number dialed. Certain other tones translated to different actions, though- phreakers discovered that by imitating the special tones they could control the automated switches and get free long-distance phone calls across the world.

Phreaking then evolved into a culture of individuals who would explore and experiment with phone systems, often delving into illegal methods to have fun and evade fees. Skilled phreakers could even eavesdrop on phone calls and manipulate phone company employees by impersonating technical staff. A few phreakers became famous within the community for discovering new techniques and furthering the phreaking study.

Interviews of prominent phreakers inspired later generations- Steve Jobs himself liked to partake in the hobby. Networked computers and the invention of BBS brought the culture to even more people, so the pastime grew tremendously. No longer a small movement, the government took notice in when phreaking communities were targeted by the United States Secret Service through Operation Sundevil.

The operation saw a few phreaking groups shut down for illegal activity. As time progressed, landlines became increasingly less popular having to compete with cell phones, so phreaking mostly died in the s. Mostly, phreaking culture sidestepped and got absorbed into hacking culture when personal computers became affordable to most families. Although likely not malicious, this situation marked a division in computer hacking. The most popular hacker group today is most definitely Anonymous.

While some actions the group take seem contradictory to past action or counter-intuitive, these facts make sense because Anonymous does not have a defined membership and actions are taken by individuals claiming to be part of the group- there are no core members. Many news outlets label Anonymous as a terrorist group, and constant hacking operations keep the group in the public eye today.

Snowden is hailed as a hero by those that believe the surveillance was unwarranted, obtrusive, and an invasion of privacy. Opponents of Snowden claim he is a terrorist who leaked private data of the government. No matter which way the situation is viewed, it becomes clear that hacking and cybersecurity are grand- scale issues in the modern world.

Having always-connected internet has exposed almost every computer as vulnerable. Cybersecurity is now a major concern for every government, corporation, and individual. It is only through studying the past, though, that we can learn about the unique situation that modern hacking is in. Chapter 2: Modern Security. While a small business may still employ a single person who is moderately proficient in most areas of technology, the huge demands imposed on internet connected big businesses means that several IT specialists must be present concurrently.

Overall, security must be present in companies either full-time, contracted through a 3rd party, or through dual specialization of a system administrator. Annually a large amount of revenue is lost due to data breaches, cyber-theft, DDOS attacks, and ransomware. Hackers perpetuate the constant need for security while anti-hackers play catch-up to protect assets. The role of a security professional is to confirm to the best of their ability the integrity of all the security of an organization.

Below are a few explanations of the various areas of study that security professionals protect from threats. CISSPs are sometimes considered anti-hackers because they employ their knowledge to stop hackers before the problem can even occur. Network security includes protecting a networked server from outside intrusion.

This means that there cannot be any entry point for curious individuals to gain access. A sophisticated security infrastructure needs to be able to identify and authenticate authorized individuals. Security professionals use methods such as passwords, biometrics, and two-factor authentication to make sure that a computer user really is who they say they are.

Hackers attempt to disguise themselves as another user by stealing their password or finding loopholes. Hackers are quick to exploit hidden bugs and loopholes in software that could elevate their privilege and give them access to secret data. Since most corporations and governments run their own in-house proprietary software, security professionals cannot always fully test software for problems.

This is a popular areas for hackers to exploit, because bugs and loopholes are potentially numerous. Sometimes the hacker is successful. A skilled troublemaker can infiltrate remote servers and deal great damage or steal a plethora of information; disaster recovery is how security professionals respond.

Often, there are documents that have a specific plan for most common disaster situations. Automated recognition systems can tell when an intrusion has occurred or when data has been stolen, and the best CISSPs can shut down the hack or even reverse-track the culprit to reveal their true identity.

Disaster recovery is not always a response to attacks, though. Natural disasters count too, and there is nothing worse than a flooded server room. Security personnel use cryptography to encrypt sensitive files, and hackers break that encryption. Competent hackers can break weak encryption by having a strong computer that can perform fast math , or by finding flaws in the encryption algorithms.

Is it worth it? Every addition to computer infrastructure comes with a risk. Networked printers are extremely helpful to businesses, but hackers have a reputation for gaining access to a network by exploiting vulnerabilities in the printer software. When anything is going to be changed, IT staff must weigh the risk versus the benefit to conclude whether change is a safe idea. After all, adding that Wi-Fi-enabled coffee pot may just give a hacker the entry point they need. A common theme in cyberpunk novels a literary subgenre about hackers involves breaking into a building at night and compromising the network from within.

This is a real threat, because any person that has physical access to a computer has a significant advantage when it comes to hacking. Many, many notable hacks were performed by employees of the organization that had too many access permissions.

Security teams attempt to prevent this by only giving just enough access to everyone that they need to do their job. It just goes to show, security staff cannot even trust their coworkers. Interestingly, the domains give an insight into the methodology and philosophy that security IT have when protecting data, and how hackers have to be wary of exactly how CISSPs operate.

The most useful knowledge about modern security for hackers, though, is an intimate idea of how businesses conduct operations. Understanding that most businesses store data on a server and authenticate themselves through Windows domains is a decent first step, but real-world experience is needed to actually understand what makes computer infrastructure tick. Chapter 3: Common Terms. One important aspect of hacking involves a deep understanding of a multitude of computing concepts.

In this chapter, we will broadly cover a few important ones. The skill of writing instructional code for a computer is known as programming. Original programming was done with only binary 1s and 0s. Programming nowadays is done with high-level programming languages that are decently close to plain English with special characters mixed in.

Programs must be compiled, which means translated into machine code before they can run. Understanding the basics of programming gives a hacker much insight into how the applications they are trying to exploit work, which might just give them an edge.

Algorithms are repeated tasks that lead to a result. For example, multiplication problems can be solved through an algorithm that repeatedly adds numbers. Algorithms are the basis of encryption- repeated scrambling is done to data to obfuscate it. Cryptography is the study and practice of encryption and decryption. The more complex the algorithm, the harder the encryption is to reverse, or decrypt.

Important files are almost always encrypted so they cannot be read without the password that begins the decryption. Encryption can be undone through various other means, too, such as cryptoanalysis intense evaluation and study of data patterns that might lead to discovering the password or attacks. Passwords are a key phrases that authenticates a user to access information not usually accessible to those not authorized. We use passwords for just about everything in computers, and cracking passwords is a prize for most hackers.

Passwords can be compromised many different ways, but mostly through database leaks, social engineering, or weak passwords. The physical components of a computer that make them work. Software is any program of written code that performs a task. Software examples range from word processors to web browsers to operating systems. Software can also be referred to as programs, applications, and apps. Usually not a full-fledged program or software because it is just too small.

The large piece of software on a computer that is used as a framework for other smaller applications is called an operating system or OS. While Windows uses the NT kernel as a core, operating systems such as Ubuntu and Debian use the Linux kernel as a core. Linux operating systems are very different from the ones we are used to, because they do not run.

In fact, some Linux operating systems are purely text-based. Linux, though, is very powerful to a hacker because it can run software that Windows cannot, and some of this software is designed with security and hacking specifically in mind. We will see in later chapters how Linux can be used to our advantage. A broad term that usually encompasses a variety of threats. It can mean virus, worm, Trojan, malware, or any other malicious piece of software. Specifically, a virus in particular is a self-replicating harmful program.

Viruses copy themselves to other computers and continue to infect like the common cold. Strange computer activity or general slowness can sometimes be a virus. Worms Worms are malicious pieces of code that do not need a host computer. Trojans are often bundled in software installations and copied alongside actually helpful programs. Malware Malware is a general and generic term for mischievous programs, such as scripts, ransomware, and all those mentioned above.

Highly effective, as large businesses that require their data be always available hospitals, schools, etc… usually have to pay the fee to continue business. Some botnet groups use the massive combined computing power to brute-force passwords and decrypt data. Being part of a malicious botnet is never beneficial. There exist helpful tools for hackers and individuals concerned with privacy.

Proxies are services that route your internet content to another place as to hide your true location. For example, if you were to post online though a proxy located in Sweden, the post would look as though it was initially created in Sweden, rather than where you actually live. Hackers use proxies to hide their true location should they ever be found out. Security-concerned people use proxies to throw off obtrusive surveillance.

It works very much like a proxy, but can hide various other information in addition to encryption of the internet packets. VPNs are typically used by business employees that work away from the office. An employee can connect to their VPN and they will be tunneled through to the corporate server and can access data as if they were sitting in an office work chair. VPNs can be used by hackers to hide location and data information, or to create a direct link to their target.

A VPN link to an office server will certainly give more privilege than an average internet connection would. An exploit or problem within a program or network that can be used to gain extra access is referred to as a vulnerability.

An exploit in the popular Sony video game console Playstation 3 let hackers install pirated games for free instead of paying for them. Finding an exploit or vulnerability is another large goal for hackers. A glitch or problem within a program that produces unexpected results. Bugs can sometimes be used to make an exploit, so hackers are always checking for bugs in program, and security experts are always trying to resolve bugs.

The internet is a network of connected computers that can communicate with each other. Websites are available by communicating with web servers, and games can be played after connecting to a game server. Companies might use intranets to share files securely and without putting them through the entire internet where they could be intercepted. VPNs are usually used to connect to private intranets. An IP Internet Protocol address is the numerical identifier given to a device on a network.

Every computer on the internet has a public IP, which is the IP that can geographically pinpoint a computer. We use IP addresses to connect to websites, but instead of typing a number such as Take a break! Chapter 4: Getting Started Hacking. Firstly, this book assumes that the aspiring hacker is using a Windows- based operating system. One of the best tools available on Windows is the command prompt, which can be accessed by following these directions:.

The command prompt resembles old DOS prompts or Linux terminals in aesthetics and functionality. Essentially, the entire computer can be interfaced through the command prompt without ever using a mouse, and this is how older computers worked!

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He picked programming and more importantly developing remarkably quickly. Long story short, I paid for him to go to a Hackathon in LA and he now has more business contacts than me. Interviewer: "Show me a cool side-project you have been working on! I do not have a cool side-project to show you! I work to pay the bills, and do other things in my spare time!

Like go fishing, or play video games. Why the fuck are you assuming that I spend my weekends coding for fun!? Solution: Use this mouse to log in to your system. Open the company portal. Connect to vpn. Enter username password. Create a ticket for mouse replacement. Day 3 I bring my own mouse. Confiscated at security. Becomes a security violation.

Day 9 I get a call from helpdesk. Agent- what is the problem? Me- my mouse is not working. Agent- why? Me- what do you mean? Something is wrong with the sensor. Agent- clean the sensor. Disconnects call. Marks ticket as resolved. Me- WTF just happened! Naturally, I escalate the issue. Day 15 Level 2 Agent- what happened? Why have you escalated the issue? Me- I need a mouse, waiting since 2 weeks. Me- when will it be back in stock?

Me- time? Him- 1 week. Day 34 I email the head of supplies for the city office. Day 45 I become a master at keyboard shortcuts. Finish my training. Get transferred to another city. No mouse till date. Surprisingly, this was one of the top recruiters in my country. Never knew, MNCs can be so so inefficient for such simple tasks. Start-ups are way better in this regard. Latest tech, small community, minimal bureaucracy and a lot of respect and things to learn. I think you failed to notice that 26 years have gone after that.

How am I supposed to be able to combine a university that never helps one even fucking slightly if you have a job or something similar? I just want to get a goddamn job that pays, but I need something that gives me salary of at least about USD equivalent to just be able to hopefully rent a small flat and have some money to spare. Now I have to be going to the college. If there is some force that can help me out of this, I summon thee! Sorry for that.

I needed to have that out of my system. Last day on the contract from hell. The following conversation was had between myself, the job thief who was handed my job and their manager, with the 10 other IBM GS "dev domain experts" assigned to that team sitting silently on zoom: Moi: hey all, what seems to be the problem? JT: how to update the java for requirement? Moi: update the database and update the logic that depends on it JTM: what changes are those?

Moi: yes. JTM: ok, so do you know how to fix the issue? Moi: definitely JTM: ok Can you tell us how to fix it? What are we going to do about this? Can you do the work? Moi: well, respectfully, it was your decision to cut me from the budget because you thought you were close enough to end of the project to get it across the line with junior resources.

Interjecting-JT: I am senior! Moi: Right. So, basically, you took ownership of the product before go live. We advised against it, in writing, numerous times. We also notified you that we would not carry a bench, so the project resources are now working on other things.

We can provide you with new resources for a minimum 6 month duration who can help you out. How are we supposed to do this?! I can send a few emails and schedule a call with your account representative and the aforementioned individuals so you can hash this out. Might need to start my own Dilbert. Probably the biggest one in my life. TL:DR at the bottom A client wanted to create an online retirement calculator, sounds easy enough , i said sure.

After messing with it for couple of hours just to get one calculation out of it, i gave up Thought about making a mysql database with the cell data and making the calculations, but NOOOO. Whoever made it decided to put each cell a excel calculation so even if i manage to get it into a database and recode all the calculations it would be wayyy pass the deadline Then i had an epiphany "What if i could just parse the excel file and get the data?

Worst Person you Interviewed? I interview many developers at my company. Today, I interviewed someone who seemed fairly qualified. Then I spotted a large gap I his resume. When I enquirer about the gap, he disclosed that he had served prison time for pedophilia. He further disclosed that as a condition of his release, he had to be supervised when using a computer. He begged me but I told him that it was again company policy.

I felt sorry for him not finding any work and being forced to beg, but I also had a knot in my stomach over the details his crime that he elaborated on. Anyway, he scored 0 out of 10 on my interview scale. So I certainly do not appreciate it when a diaper wearing, snotty nosed, junior wanker swares in my offices to merely protect his willful ignorance and shows pathetic pride instead of humility.

That interview comes to an end immediately! The pedo got a 0 out of 10, but this brat scored a -5 out of 10!!! I have so many interview stories I could tell you Is this the code life Another scrum meeting Caught in the the Node life No escape from reality Open your eyes Look up to the screens and see.. Just committed a bug Merge the branch to production Did it fast for milestones Mama.

The repo has just begun But now they going to throw the stack away. Now what is that? Magnificcooooooo I was just coding and nobody liked it He was coding and nobody liked it, spare his some time to do his debugging Easy man. Here go. Will you let me code? A meeting. No,we will not let you code. So you think you can dump me and erase my branch? Since I recently successfully completed a huge project and now have some spare time, I thought it would be nice to visit my parents. Everything went well.

We were glad to see each other after a long time and had a nice day together. My father works as a security guard and had to go to work early in the evening. So I stayed alone with my mother. I wished her a good night and wanted to surf the internet.

But somehow I had a strange feeling maybe a premonition and after 5 minutes I went into her bedroom to bring her a glass of water and at this very moment she suffered a heart attack. I threw it all away and called immediately. I shouted the address into the phone, screamed emergency, heart failure, unconscious while trying to start resuscitation at the same time.

Fortunately, the ambulance was nearby, arrived in just a few minutes, pushed me aside and started the resuscitation procedure. It took more than an hour and dozens of electric shocks to even get a pulse. The ambulance took her to the hospital for further medical treatment. I was in the hospital all night until at least she had a stable pulse.

The whole leg was slowly turning black. I immediately dragged him into the car and drove him as fast as I could to the hospital. Both are in a coma, fighting for their lives. There were two kinds of people in said town: Mexicans trying to find something less shit than juarez and white trash reveling in their own failure.

I graduated high school when I was almost 16 years old. If being a serial eviction artist is a thing, my family were savants. I said okay, turned around and tossed a bag and my shitty af spare parts computer into the back of the junkyard Vega I generously referred to as a car and moved cross country. Car died on arrival, so I was basically committed.

Pulled shifts at two part times and what kids today call a side hustle to pay for school, couch surfed most of the time. Sleep deprivation was the only constant. And then I lost my job. The book store having burned down on the same weekend the owner was conveniently looking to buy property in Vegas. Depression sets in, that wonderful soul crushing variety that comes with what little safety net you had evaporating.

At a certain point, I was basically living out of the campus computer lab, TA friend of mine nice enough to accidentally lock me in on the reg. Got really into online gaming as a means of dealing with my depression. Host was local, saw the code and offered me a job at his firm that paid chump change, but was three times what all my other work did combined and left time for school.

Ground there for a few years until I got a position with work study at LBL that conflicted too much for it to remain mutually beneficial. Amicable parting of the ways. Fucking poverty is what convinced me to code for a living.

And to anyone who preaches the virtues of it and skipping opportunity on grounds of the moral high ground, well, you know. Learned Python by working 6 year with it. The first tool I made in my spare time was a porn playback helper. So I start googling best way to do it and I decided to start CS50 course on edx. And that was a real blast for. Best learning experience ever happened in my life. Anyway, I was going through CS50 curriculum at the start I thought I will quit it after few weeks and every day was like so exciting.

This whole programming thing seems like the best thing happens to me in many years. There were so many interesting things to learn, I felt like I discovered whole new word. I chose frontend path as it seems easier for a person without technical education. If everything goes as planned I will start looking for a job at beginning of next year.

So where I the rant you could ask? Well, you should guest what my family thinks about it. WTF - where is the fucking support? So thats it my rant about what my familly thinks about me become programmer. Stop wasting your time on scripting!

I need you to do your magic and clear those alerts - netikras, there are 20 tickets waiting to be investigated. Either your coleagues spend 2 hours on them or you do your magic in 2 minutes, as always.. Good choice! Trainings and Certification expenses are covered A very similar scenario has just happened in 2 last workplaces of mine. It proves I am actually on the right track. It proves that I in fact have a better understanding than those who should have it.

It just makes me tick! Looking for another adventure like that : With more power to change things this time. I would recommend anyone studying software or hardware be it at school or in spare time to get involved. Thanks dfox and trogus. So yesterday, literally just hours after i basically said on somebody elses rant "friends are overrated," i ran into a friend i havent seen in over a year and we ended up chatting for an hour after she gave me a ride home.

I was in such a good mood after and I realized its the first socializing ive done outside of talking to work people or my partner in over a month. So I teach a Lego mindstorms class to 5th graders for fun on my spare time. The whole room the boys mouths were open and one kid actually said noooo. We blew those kids minds. Then this morning, my fucking car locked me out. Walked to work in degree windy ass weather. Lost my cash somewhere between here and there. An hour late to work. Get another back up computer going and low and behold fucking windows updates!

Our school uses two services, a rewards system which for some reason can also show our timetable, and another service for displaying our homework. In my spare time I made a project which combined these two services and showed it to him. Root encounters HR at her new job. So, I left my job a few weeks ago. It was a great place to work, with great managers, decent coworkers, and interesting work. I also had free reign over how I built things, what to improve, etc. So, I left. I had emotions and everything.

Anyway, I started my new job this week. Rented an office read: professional closet and everything! But getting an I9 thing notarized? HR made it sound ridiculously dire and important, and reminded me like five or more times. I figured it was just some notary service; that takes like 10 minutes, right?

So, against my better judgement I decided to just go anyway. Notary lady was super slow in every single action. So I thank her for proving the flow of time is variable, which she ignores in slow motion, and drive back home. It took prodding to get her to respond every time, but after some very slow back and forth, she says she wants to call the notary personally and ask what they need. I waited around for another response that never came, and eventually just drove to the notary place again to have them notarize the required ID documents.

That plus my chat history with HR should be enough to show that I bloody well tried, and HR just shit the bed instead. I finally got them notarized at like , and totally broke the speed limit the entire way to the office, found the last remaining parking spot, and made it to my office just in time for the meeting. Meeting was interesting mostly about security , but totally made me facepalm, shout "Seriously!?

What the hell are you thinking!? I will probably rant about that next. Passive aggressive bitch. My old employer used to used a highly complex people management system, made up of around fifteen or so different tools and packages. Apparently this had been the case for decades, so in my spare time, I wrote an entirely bespoke, extensible HR web application that could be easily modified without changing the code.

It even supported the weird spider web management structure. I took it to my area manager, who pushed it up the chain. Apparently the country representative liked it a lot, so decided to bring me on board for an implementation and test case.

Fast forward a few months, and people are singing praises. I get a huge promotion, with a sizeable pay bump to match. Last I heard, though, my app is now in use in almost every operating country around the world. Not bad for something I wrote in my spare time. Radio Shack store closed near my house. Had a huge fire sale. My biggest personal challenges as a dev are these two: 1. I tend to work too much by choice , which impacts my personal spare time heavily. I tend to not let loose of a problem until it is solved.

This often results in longer work hours or me not taking brakes Just WHY? Could you please do that a bit earlier than usual, a week or two extra would make a big difference", they replied "absolutely, no problem! So, I finnish the thing on time, clocking out on a total of Release day! So I remind them that the thing is supposed to be done that day, and that it takes me 80h to redo, and those papers will require me to redo everything from scratch.

That is an absolute requirement. So after trying to tell this project lead, for multiple years, how much time I devote to this project for free every year, during a short period of time, and after trying countless times to explain why it has to be done when the project is released, I became quite irritated.

I accompanied it with a bitter email to the project lead. Then why do I continue, year after year? Because I feel that those people that benefit from this really deserve it! But why does there have to be a dick project lead in the middle that makes me feel sick working on the thing I love the most!

Just had to get it off my chest! I am so fucking jealous of all you assholes. Oh look at me, i am a full stack developer and yada yada. I have the time and patience to do whatever app or game i want and show it off. Fuck, you. If i get home, i am glad i can stay awake for dinner and play a little game before i go to bed and my next day starts.

I have no motivation and no energy to spend when i get home, and even the weekends rarely i will feel like proframming jack shit. When or how do you even do it?! Stop being better then me in every possible way! Bought a second hand phone because my current one drains too fast battery. Only windows installation I have left spare laptop I hardly use crashes every time I boot up.

Linux version of an alternative is downloadable but the site gives a shit ton of errors. Well fuck me sideways right now. Been reading devrant posts for a month or so, this is my first actual post. Some backstory: Currently working in HR for the last 7 or so years with complete shit for brains boss, even worse when it comes to anything related to technology. This time in computer sciences, to make a career switch to systems and software engineer.

Combining a halftime job with a fulltime education is taking up enough of my time as it is and I have more than enough school projects btw.. Boss: it would be a win-win. Work a little harder in your spare time and when you graduate you have a real-life project on your resume.

I work 10 hours a day, 7 days a week on average, trying to combine work and studies. Boss: Your coworker also extreme dumbass told me you wrote some quick code the other day that helped him out. Me in complete disbelief by now : I wrote him an Excel-macro! Boss: Thats too bad.

I expected you to welcome an opportunity like this and be more motivated towards this company.. Even before I started this bachelors degree I had at least some understanding of the work developers put in their software. It blows my mind, no, it fucking angers me how people think making software is so simple.. Please, someone tell me how I can keep myself from ramming his fucking head through a wall tomorrow I think having the wrong job can really bring down the quality of life. My friend has to drive two hours each way to get to and from work.

What are the consequences, you ask? Having the wrong job is unhealthy and results in a cascade of bad side effects.. There is no Yin-Yang there. I know because my work life is somewhat balanced. Me: Nah, should be ok, I just did some maintenance this sunday. Really glad I kept the old server running and doing daily backups. Saved our ass for the second time. And finally, new off-site backup is planned this week. Have to pay tbe bills somehow, amirite?

So my boss has installed cameras "for security", and uses them to monitor staff on a regular basis. A couple months ago he pulled me aside with a piece of paper. The warning contained 10 points, all of which made reference to observances over the damn cameras. Please keep in mind -- I have been an overachieving empleyee for over 5 years, and friends with the bosses the whole time. My boss was in my wedding party.

Around 27 hours at new customer location. They had a server failure due to incompetence. They had fired their own IT guy and called us 6 months later because the server stopped responding. First diagnostic. Raid controller then proved to be broken once the disks was replaced.

Waiting for new raid controller and installing. Backup non existing, no one changed dat tape during the 6 months without IT. The tape was just a transparent plastic band, no media left. Raid config is stored in static ram on controller, no backup! Several hours in tech support to find out how to rebuild raid config from existing disks.

Proves to be impossible to rebuild raid set due to some checksum failures. More hours with support to enable some diagnostic read only mode to mirror low level content to external drive. Then many more hours to copy parts of the tree until it gets an error, restart after that and go on. During this time I manage to be in contact with the raid manufacturers all support centers, one in europe, one in the us and one in Taiwan, switching each time one if them closed for the night.

I then hear him one day joking to this guy that he managed to pass Class A by doing nothing and managed to get a higher grade than the rest of his group, at the time he was copying homework from a person for the first programming class because he failed!

Later I hear in my final year he was hanging out with some first years, a friend of mine sees him and says hi, why you hanging with first years, the group of first years look at him and ask how he knows them, and proceeds to question why they were told he was a first year also Not only this but I heard despite failing so many papers heard he was repeating first programming class times he somehow managed to graduate Also, I am one of those players that plays very few games but tends to commit to those I do play.

The last one I played, I spent several hundreds of euros on over the couple of years I played it. But obviously not anymore. Re-evaluate your life choices. This one time I developed some useful plugins and a command line interface for the platform we built at work. Then when it was done I thought it had some good value so I created a pull request to donate it to the platform.

That same day I got 3 complaints that my pull request did not conform to conventions and that there was no ticket for it and they complained about the fact that it made their jobs harder. It was in fact the last time I developed something for work in my spare time. Fucking finally. I got a job Thats right!

Best thing is Now every project can be a side project I can chillax and build software in my spare time I love it. This here is some source code that i made. And a friend asked if I could make him a website. So I told him that I barely know the basics yet.

So now, a couple days of tryhard coding later, he raged about how bad the site looked and that he himself could have done a better job than I did. And yet the entire site had over lines of code in it perhaps not very much for you hardcore coders out there, but a biiig step for me and several subpages, all with custom error pages and all. The bastard. But to he point, in my rage i made this. And if anyone has a spare dns space to put the code on, then help yourself. I told him I had a spare.

I loaded it dd-wrt on there and next time I went over there he asked about opening a port. I said I could do it for him. Development plus laboratories is kind of my expertise, so I ended up in a little grimey HR office looking out over the factory floor of a cocoa processing facility. I was applying for an automation job, a temp thing for three weeks, updating some ugly scripts which took readings from machines and threw them into excel sheets.

Safety and working in sterile conditions is very important to us" I had sent them my certifications in advance, plus references to the work I did in a biosafety level 3 lab for JnJ and cleanroom work at an aerospace company. There were fat sweaty guys on sneakers, taking cocoa paste samples right next to the window. They ended up hiring a friend of mine with zero experience, for minimum wage. If they had just told me about the low salary indication, I would still have done the work.

I was in between jobs anyway, bored, trying to fill up some spare time. I just "fired" two longtime clients today without really caring all that much. Not for no reason. They just were asking too much for too little. And I was getting bored of them. When I think about what I want to do in my spare time, the first thing I think about is creative writing.

The last thing I think about is code and website design. What the fuck is up with interviewers asking about my goddamn hobbies now? It used to be, "well do you write code in your spare time too"? What the fuck do they want from us? Well fuck me sideways with a rusty lamppost. Got assigned to a project at work, kind of a biggie, my first actual large project. Been working there since last year, done a lot of research in my spare time and felt like I deserved it or something.

But then Guess what. Exactly that happened. Because of his overconfidence and big mouth he got assigned to the project as well. He planned a pitch. Stole my words. But I do have a problem with people laying back at work and asking 7 different people how to open a terminal.

Why does this happen? Just why? So, finally after a very long time, I get a new keyboard Ok, the previous one is 35 years old.. When it arrives, I find out its wired up differently to what I need, so.. Rewire it, which takes ages of course. Not having the best soldering iron, or anything really to hold the work with Where did that rusty thing with lots of clasps go I had earlier! Now it boots.. Download it. Install it. Run application. Nothing happens..

Uninstall it. Antivirus software pops up, is unhappy about a file in the driver! Google about it.. Install an earlier version of the software. Run application, it works! Adjust colours from pulsating make you seasick colour scheme to solid damp colour. Reboot to see if colour sticks.. It does! Place keyboard on desk in just the right place..

It rocks.. No I mean, it moves about, from front to back! Why is it not flat!!! Blu-tak time.. So, what else do I not so much like about it.. Well, the font is too small! Unlike my previous one, which was designed for old folk with less than perfect eyesight! And the cable..

It comes out the back, in the middle.. Not the back and to a side.. And it leaks light everywhere! Keys are rated for what, 50 million clicks or something, so should last me till I die.. I guess no one does replacement key caps for it with a bigger font then.. Maybe in a few years I might design my own then.. The capslock key is too wide..

The enter key is too wide.. It feels newer.. Crisper sound. Maybe not so loud. And I now have this huge space on the right for the mouse to play! I got a new mouse recently too! Three weeks later. Proceeds to me being the only person contributing to the project in anyway despite having a full time job meaning little spare time. I chase and track storms! Nothing makes you feel alive like a tornado a few miles in front of you! I used to do audits for private companies with a team.

Most of them where black box audits and we were allowed to physically manipulate certain machines in and around the building, as long as we could get to them unnoticed. There was this one time a company hired us to test their badge system, and our main objective was to scrape the data on the smartcards with a skimmer on the scanner at the front of the building.

Now, we get assigned this task. Seems easy enough. We head to the address stated on the contract, place the skimmer etc etc all good. One of our team gets caught fetching the data from the skimmer a week later it had to be physically removed. Turns out: wrong Building, wrong company. The only difference between them was the streetnumber, painted on them in big. They gave us the wrong address. I still have nightmares about this from time to time.

In the end, because the collected data was never used and we could somewhat justify our actions because we had that contract and we had the calls and mails with the CEO of xyz. It never came to a lawsuit. We were, and still are pretty sure though that the CEO of xyz himself was very interesed in the data of that other company and sent us out to the wrong building on purpose.

We show them how they can protect it better and then we erase everything. I quit doing audits some time ago. But some people just really are polished turds. What do you guys do on off time? More code? I mostly spend weekends with my girlfriend and away from code. Helps clear my head for the coming week. Wrote it weeks before the deadline, forgot about it, night before I had a quick review and realised I had missed half the spec aaaand it was going live the following day. Shitting myself I pulled an all nighter, drove to the office at 5am, managed to get it done with minutes to spare for 9am.

I left shortly after that. Participated in a hackathon two weeks ago. All 3 winners were established startups or had already developed product. All they did was, come, sit, eat, spare time and pitch. Though, made it to TOP 10 and got incubated at incubation center of organizer. Parked the car in a parking lot 15 mins before job interview. Plenty of time to spare.

Go to pay for parking. Fine, I have notes. Shit, I need to go get change quick. May , for me, was still a massively shit month. Also refuses all CFW for seemingly no reason despite being hacked. God bless pre-boot homebrew menus - Phone: grabbed it to read an overheat warning with cold-ass hands, screen exploded.

Anything else? You still got like 4 days, you still got time to fucking kill me, May, you fucking bitch. My colleague is what you would call a cowboy coder. He sometimes works at his spare time so things we worked on the previous day can be totally changed the next day without any notice.

He has also removed code written by someone else because he did not like it, in secret. I found this while browsing through commits that were committed directly to master without a PR. What the hell do I do? Has anyone else worked with a similar typed person? Please help. Today was just marvelous. Locked up my car with keys inside and with engine on. I was driving back home from work. I drove to a parking near home, which is really long, narrow and impossible to turn around.

So I decided to get out of a car, for like, 30 secs and go check, if there were any unoccupied parking places. Parking brake; I stepped out of the car and closed the door. So, I am outside. Engine is on. Parking brake. My backpack and phone were inside. So I ran home in home to find a second pair of keys. Small fixes to prolong life of some object will eventually fail in very, very uncomfortable manner. And I DO care about my car and do lot of things by myself.

I fucking hate chained methods. Ok, not all of them. Query things like array. But once you get to the corner cases, jesus christ, prepare to read some docpages. You end up reading their entire fucking docs which are suboptimal sometimes trying to figure if this fucking dsl can do what you need. Then you give up and ask in a github issue. The corner cases usually involve nesting or some very specific condition, albeit reasonable. This kind of design is usually present in testing or validation js libraries.

And I hate all of those for it. No magic globals, no chaining, zero config. Fuck globals forced by libs. But my favorite thing about it that is I can put a breakpoint wherever the fuck I want and the debugger stops right fucking there.

As an end dev, I only expect complexity increases to come from the problems themselves rather than from needlessly "beautified" apis. When people create their own shitty dsl, an image comes to my mind of an incoherent rambling man that likes poetry a lot and creates his own martial art, which looks pretty but will get your ass kicked against the most basic styles of fighting. I fucking hate esoteric code. This bad style of coding is a result of how low the barrier to code in higher level langs are.

But at the same time it breeds laziness. Js has such a low learning curve that it attacts the wrong kind of devs, the lazy, the uninspired, the medium. That place is a landfill. Every lang has a ratio of competence. Of competent to incompetent devs. You have the lang devs and most intelligent lib devs at the top. At the bottom you have the bottom. Well js has a horrible ratio. You could say that js improved a lot, that it was way worse beforr.

But I hate chaining now, and i hated back then! On top of this, you have these blog web companies, sucking the "js tutorial" business tit dry, pumping out the most obscenely unprofessional and bar lowering tutorials you can imagine, further capping the average intelligence of most js devs. Long story short, I now have some 30 computers that need to be upgraded possibly from 7 to Win 10 Pro, and joined to the Domain.

Thing is, I would like to do that all in one go, so I look into how to automatically setup Windows. Got it, provisioning packages! Just like real computers where everything is different, provisioning packages failed to work twice, and after wasting about a week trying to make it work, I gave up. So now I realized that I need to try a different method, a custom windows image.

See, microsoft decided to go all in on the provisioning packages thing they do have advantages in certain use cases , and seemed to decide that making custom images was no longer necessary, so they documentation was nearly impossible to find. But after a lot of searching, I figured out how to do it: 1. Install Windows in a VM. Put it in audit mode. Install your stuff. Create an unattend. Generalize the image. Boot WinPE.

Open the console. Capture the image. Wait an hour or two. I used to think countries that had good infrastructure were the best. Now public transportation is the worst idea around here, since no one wears masks and pretends all is well. This is actually a decision I need to take next week.

If you believe things will "get back to normal" please give me your input as it is valuable to me. So this JUST happened. After I spent 4 years in a startup company it was literally just me and a guy who started it. Being web dev in this company meant you did everything from A-Z. At some point we had 2 other devs and 2 designers thank god he hired some cause previously he tried designing them on his own and every site looked like a dead puppy soaked in ass juice.

My title changed from a peasant web dev to technical lead which meant shit. This basically meant that I had to show all junior devs mostly interns how to do their jobs. Unrealistic deadlines, stress and pulling hair were a norm as was taking the blame anytime something went wrong which happened very often. Being passionate about web development since I was a kid this was scaring the shit out of me. After these 4 years I felt burnt out. Programming, once exciting became boring and stale.

That was the moment I lost faith in my web dev future. Happy to say though about a month later I did get a job in a great agency as a front end developer it felt amazing to focus on one thing after all these years of "full-stack bullshit , got a decent salary way more than I expected and work with really amazing and creative people. I get almost too much time to learn new stuff and I got up to speed with the latest tech in a few weeks.

So please buzz me here if you want one. It is on Vultr server. However, the code is on gitlab private repo. Any contribution is gladly welcome. After working 3 years in my current job and my boss hating anything to do with unit testing etc, I used my spare time to refactor our Makefiles to allow for the creation of unit and integration tests. After having bashed any workflow with testing in it, I showed him the new workflow and automatic testing in Jenkins and he was actually enthousiastic, just like all other employees!

What really helps me is knowing electronics, having a solid understanding of maths and experimenting around with computers and hardware in my spare time. At some point you start to see programming as being more than just "kreating" as Karlie Kloss would say an "app".

I see programming as pushing your machine to go beyond its seemingly narrow boundaries. I look after servers, softwares,vendors and write code too. I am also learning datascience in spare time. Suddenly I found that I am giving no time to family and friends. The changelog since OPL 0. KaozHG Thank you, very good cfw. Last edited: Nov 8, KaozHG , Nov 8, TOM Thanks for this cfw.

TOM , Nov 8, Drag , Nov 8, But the rebug ta taking. This has the same security rebug? You only need to apply the fw version spoof once then you are done. The only unknown for the moment is the use for this newly included certificate in 4.

If you are desperate to update, this Cobra release will serve you well. Last edited: Nov 9, I Need Some Help Here! I updated from Rebug 4. If I try to go back to Rebug 4. Last edited: Nov 12, You must log in or sign up to reply here. Show Ignored Content. Share This Page Tweet. Latest: Joonie, Jan 22, at AM. General PS3 Discussion. Latest: solstic3, Jan 22, at AM. Latest: sandungas, Jan 22, at AM.

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