При помощи этой замечательной утилиты, вы сможете сбрутфорсить более чем к 30 протоколам, например к ftp, smb, http и к https тоже, ssh, vnc, pop3 и так далее. Кстати, для брутфорса ssh необходим пакет libssh, имейте это ввиду. Более подробно ознакомиться с данным продуктом можно на GitHub. В Kali Linux, а так же в Parrot OS Hydra уже предустановлена, в других же дистрибутивах необходимо устанавливать вручную.
Вы так же можете собрать Гидру из GitHub, инструкция прилагается все на том же GitHub, в том числе и необходимые зависимости. А в данной статье ограничимся лишь официальными репозиториями. Если же вам будет интересен полный процесс, то есть, установка из GitHub и работа с Hydra в терминале, пишите в комментариях и в одной из следующих статей обязательно опишу подробно работу с этим замечательным инструментом.
И так переходим к установке, открываем терминал и вводим команды:. Вместе с графической версией установиться и консольная. После чего можно переходить к аудиту, проводить аудит безопасности будем на протоколе ssh, но, принцип в графической версии примерно везде один и тот же. Для брутфорса необходимы словари с паролями, их вы можете либо скачать из интернета, либо, составить самим, например, утилитой Crunch.
Одни из самых популярных словарей для брутфорса — rockyou. Но, так как мы будем брутить SSH, то указываем порт Остальные вкладки и поля рассматривать не будем, так как там настройки прокси и так далее, в данный момент это не к чему, так как мы не собираемся взламывать, а всего лишь проводим аудит безопасности своей же системы. Скачать torbutton можно по следующим ссылкам:. Все версии. Текущая версия stable. Для быстрого переключения в любом браузере можно использовать любое дополнение, предназначенное для переключения прокси proxy switcher.
Хочу отметить, что для Google Chrome единственным работоспособным расширением оказалось Proxy SwitchySharp. В настройках прокси перечень дополнений для переключения прокси дан в предыдущем разделе указываем следующие параметры:. При использовании иных программ к примеру, Pidgin в их настройках нужно установить прокси по протоколу socks 4a или 5. Зачастую Tor используется в качестве обычного прокси.
Если вас не устроила текущая выходная нода, ее легко менять с помощью скрипта. Остается создать скрипт со следующим содержимым обратите внимание, ваш пароль хранится в скрипте в открытом виде! Внутри сети Tor доступны ресурсы в псевдо-доменной зоне. Список данных ресурсов можно увидеть здесь возможно, для доступа к данной информации вам потребуется соединение через Tor, поскольку ваш провайдер может блокировать данный сайт. Заходим в about:config , ищем параметр network. С помощью pac-файла можно настроить доступ к определенным доменным именам с помощью конкретных прокси для доступа к onion-сайту вам не придется вручную переключать прокси.
В связи с последними изменениями в законодательстве Российской Федерации и Республики Беларусь возможно блокирование Tor провайдерами. Два основных метода - это блокирование известных IP-адресов узлов Tor этому противодействует использование непубличных адресов - мостов и глубокий анализ трафика в связи с чем рекомендуется обфусцировать трафик.
Также можно использовать Tor через IPv6. Здесь нужно отметить, что Tor Bundle , скачиваемый с официального сайта, предоставляет более удобный механизм работы с обфускацией и мостами, чем представленный ниже в этом руководстве. Нам нужно обновить Tor до последней stable-версии из официального репозитория и установить утилиту для обфускации проверяйте на официальном сайте torproject.
Актуальной на момент конца го года является утилита obfs4proxy. Ищем нужный нам пакет в репозиториях Ubuntu:. Мосты мы будем использовать при настроенной обфускации трафика смотри предыдущий пункт. Чтобы получить мосты, заходим сюда либо отправляем на адрес bridges bridges. Теперь мы можем работать с IPv6. Остается небольшой шаг для настройки Tor.
The best defense is to be vigilant and extremely cautious when filling out web forms. Torrent file-sharing applications have been observed to ignore proxy settings and make direct connections even when they are told to use Tor. Not only do you deanonymize your torrent traffic and your other simultaneous Tor web traffic this way, you also slow down the entire Tor network for everyone else. Tor Browser will block browser plugins such as Flash, RealPlayer, Quicktime, and others: they can be manipulated into revealing your IP address.
Similarly, we do not recommend installing additional addons or plugins into Tor Browser, as these may bypass Tor or otherwise harm your anonymity and privacy. Tor will encrypt your traffic to and within the Tor network, but the encryption of your traffic to the final destination website depends upon on that website. Tor Browser will warn you before automatically opening documents that are handled by external applications.
This will reveal your non-Tor IP address. If you must work with files downloaded via Tor, we strongly recommend either using a disconnected computer, or using dangerzone to create safe PDF files that you can open. Under no circumstances is it safe to use BitTorrent and Tor together, however. Tor tries to prevent attackers from learning what destination websites you connect to.
If this matters to you, you can reduce this risk by configuring Tor to use a bridge rather than connecting directly to the Tor network. Ultimately the best protection is a social approach: the more Tor users there are near you and the more diverse their interests, the less dangerous it will be that you are one of them.
Convince other people to use Tor, too! Be smart and learn more. Understand what Tor does and does not offer. Installing new add-ons may affect Tor Browser in unforeseen ways and potentially make your Tor Browser fingerprint unique. If your copy of Tor Browser has a unique fingerprint, your browsing activities can be deanonymized and tracked even though you are using Tor Browser. Most browsers inadvertently create a unique fingerprint for each user which can be tracked across the internet.
This means each Tor Browser user looks like every other Tor Browser user, making it difficult to track any individual user. This may allow sensitive data to be leaked or allow an attacker to infect Tor Browser. The add-on itself could even be maliciously designed to spy on you. Want to learn more about browser fingerprinting? Tor Browser can certainly help people access your website in places where it is blocked.
Most of the time, simply downloading the Tor Browser and then using it to navigate to the blocked site will allow access. In places where there is heavy censorship we have a number of censorship circumvention options available, including pluggable transports. For more information, please see the Tor Browser User Manual section on censorship.
Tor Browser prevents people from knowing the websites you visit. Tor is a program you can run on your computer that helps keep you safe on the Internet. It protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location.
This set of volunteer relays is called the Tor network. The way most people use Tor is with Tor Browser, which is a version of Firefox that fixes many privacy issues. You can read more about Tor on our about page. The Tor Project is a non-profit charity organization that maintains and develops the Tor software. Tor is the onion routing network. When we were starting the new next-generation design and implementation of onion routing in , we would tell people we were working on onion routing, and they would say "Neat.
Which one? Note: even though it originally came from an acronym, Tor is not spelled "TOR". Only the first letter is capitalized. You need to use a separate program that understands your application and protocol and knows how to clean or "scrub" the data it sends. Tor Browser tries to keep application-level data, like the user-agent string, uniform for all users. A typical proxy provider sets up a server somewhere on the Internet and allows you to use it to relay your traffic.
This creates a simple, easy to maintain architecture. The users all enter and leave through the same server. The provider may charge for use of the proxy, or fund their costs through advertisements on the server. You just have to point your browser at their proxy server. Simple proxy providers are fine solutions if you do not want protections for your privacy and anonymity online and you trust the provider to not do bad things. Some simple proxy providers use SSL to secure your connection to them, which protects you against local eavesdroppers, such as those at a cafe with free wifi Internet.
Simple proxy providers also create a single point of failure. The provider knows both who you are and what you browse on the Internet. They can see your traffic as it passes through their server. In some cases, they can even see inside your encrypted traffic as they relay it to your banking site or to ecommerce stores.
Tor passes your traffic through at least 3 different servers before sending it on to the destination. Your traffic is encrypted between the Tor client on your computer and where it pops out somewhere else in the world. A bad first of three servers can see encrypted Tor traffic coming from your computer. It merely sees "This IP address is using Tor". You are still protected from this node figuring out both who you are and where you are going on the Internet. A bad third of three servers can see the traffic you sent into Tor.
The Tor software is free software. This means we give you the rights to redistribute the Tor software, either modified or unmodified, either for a fee or gratis. They want to distribute the Tor Browser. You will need to follow the license for those programs as well. The simplest way to obey their licenses is to include the source code for these programs everywhere you include the bundles themselves.
See our trademark FAQ for details. Our wiki has a community-maintained list of instructions for Torifying specific applications. Please add to this list and help us keep it accurate! Most people use Tor Browser, which includes everything you need to browse the web safely using Tor.
Using Tor with other browsers is dangerous and not recommended. If they do ask us, we will fight them, and the lawyers say probably win. We will never put a backdoor in Tor. We think that putting a backdoor in Tor would be tremendously irresponsible to our users, and a bad precedent for security software in general. If we ever put a deliberate backdoor in our security software, it would ruin our professional reputation.
Nobody would trust our software ever again - for excellent reasons! But that said, there are still plenty of subtle attacks people might try. Somebody might impersonate us, or break into our computers, or something like that. Tor is open source, and you should always check the source or at least the diffs since the last release for suspicious things.
You should also check the PGP signatures on the releases, to make sure nobody messed with the distribution sites. Also, there might be accidental bugs in Tor that could affect your anonymity. We periodically find and fix anonymity-related bugs, so make sure you keep your Tor versions up-to-date.
Digital signature is a process ensuring that a certain package was generated by its developers and has not been tampered with. Below we explain why it is important and how to verify that the Tor program you download is the one we have created and has not been modified by some attacker. Each file on our download page is accompanied by a file labelled "signature" with the same name as the package and the extension ".
This will vary by web browser, but generally you can download this file by right-clicking the "signature" link and selecting the "save file as" option. For example, torbrowser-install-win These are example file names and will not exactly match the file names that you download.
Please notice that a signature is dated the moment the package has been signed. Therefore every time a new file is uploaded a new signature is generated with a different date. As long as you have verified the signature you should not worry that the reported date may vary.
If you run Windows, download Gpg4win and run its installer. In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in windows command-line, cmd. In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in the Terminal under "Applications". In order to verify the signature you will need to type a few commands in a terminal window.
How to do this will vary depending on your distribution. The Tor Browser team signs Tor Browser releases. You might be able to import the key using the Workaround using a public key section instead. This command results in the key being saved to a file found at the path. To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the corresponding ". The examples below assume that you downloaded these two files to your "Downloads" folder.
Note that these commands use example file names and yours will be different: you will have downloaded a different version than 9. If you encounter errors you cannot fix, feel free to download and use this public key instead. Alternatively, you may use the following command:. Please see the Installation section in the Tor Browser Manual. Please see the Uninstalling section in the Tor Browser Manual. Please see the Updating section in the Tor Browser Manual.
The file you download and run prompts you for a destination. The default setting in the Windows installer also creates a shortcut for you on your Desktop, though be aware that you may have accidentally deselected the option to create a shortcut.
Whenever we release a new stable version of Tor Browser, we write a blog post that details its new features and known issues. If you started having issues with your Tor Browser after an update, check out blog. We want everyone to be able to enjoy Tor Browser in their own language.
Tor Browser is now available in 30 different languages , and we are working to add more. Want to help us translate? Become a Tor translator! You can also help us in testing the next languages we will release, by installing and testing Tor Browser Alpha releases. No, Tor Browser is an open source software and it is free. Any browser forcing you to pay and is claiming to be Tor Browser is fake. To make sure you are downloading the right Tor Browser visit our download page. After downloading, you can make sure that you have the official version of Tor Browser by verifying the signature.
If you are not able to access our website, then visit censorship section to get information about alternate way of downloading Tor Browser. Note that by using Tor Mobile on Chrome OS, you will view the mobile not desktop versions of websites. Using Tor Browser can sometimes be slower than other browsers. The Tor network has over a million daily users, and just over relays to route all of their traffic, and the load on each server can sometimes cause latency. You can help improve the speed of the network by running your own relay , or encouraging others to do so.
That said, Tor is much faster than it used to be and you may not actually notice any change in speed from other browsers. They erase all the information on your machine relating to the browsing session after they are closed, but have no measures in place to hide your activity or digital fingerprint online. This means that an observer can collect your traffic just as easily as any regular browser. There are methods for setting Tor Browser as your default browser, but those methods may not work always or in every operating system.
The Tor Browser works hard to isolate itself from the rest of your system, and the steps for making it the default browser are unreliable. This means sometimes a website would load in the Tor Browser, and sometimes it would load in another browser. This type of behavior can be dangerous and break anonymity. We strongly recommend against using Tor in any browser other than Tor Browser.
Using Tor in another browser can leave you vulnerable without the privacy protections of Tor Browser. You can certainly use another browser while you are also using Tor Browser. However, you should know that the privacy properties of Tor Browser will not be present in the other browser. Be careful when switching back and forth between Tor and a less safe browser, because you may accidentally use the other browser for something you intended to do using Tor.
However, be aware that your other browser is not keeping your activity private, and you may forget and accidentally use that non-private browser to do something that you intended to do in Tor Browser. Any other application on your system including other browsers will not have their connections routed over the Tor network, and will not be protected.
They need to be configured separately to use Tor. If you need to be sure that all traffic will go through the Tor network, take a look at the Tails live operating system which you can start on almost any computer from a USB stick or a DVD. We do not recommend running multiple instances of Tor Browser, and doing so may not work as anticipated on many platforms. Please be sure no other instance of Tor Browser is already running, and that you have extracted Tor Browser in a location that your user has the correct permissions for.
Tor Browser is a modified version of Firefox specifically designed for use with Tor. A lot of work has been put into making the Tor Browser, including the use of extra patches to enhance privacy and security. While it is technically possible to use Tor with other browsers, you may open yourself up to potential attacks or information leakage, so we strongly discourage it.
Learn more about the design of Tor Browser. Bookmarks in the Tor Browser can be exported, imported, backed up, restored as well as imported from another browser. In order to manage your bookmarks in Tor Browser, go to:. Your bookmarks are now successfully exported from Tor Browser.
The bookmarks HTML file you saved is now ready to be imported into another web browser. Bookmarks can be transferred from Firefox to Tor Browser. After exporting the data from the browser, follow the above step to import the bookmark file into your Tor Browser.
At the bottom of the page, next to the "View the Tor logs" text, click the button "View Logs You should see an option to copy the log to your clipboard, which you will be able to paste it into a text editor or an email client. Tor Browser in its default mode is starting with a content window rounded to a multiple of px x px to prevent fingerprinting the screen dimensions. The strategy here is to put all users in a couple of buckets to make it harder to single them out.
That works so far until users start to resize their windows e. Tor Browser 9 ships with a fingerprinting defense for those scenarios as well, which is called Letterboxing , a technique developed by Mozilla and presented in It works by adding white margins to a browser window so that the window is as close as possible to the desired size while users are still in a couple of screen size buckets that prevent singling them out with the help of screen dimensions. In simple words, this technique makes groups of users of certain screen sizes and this makes it harder to single out users on basis of screen size, as many users will have same screen size.
Something like this might do the trick:. I tried to access your site xyz. I urge you to reconsider this decision; Tor is used by people all over the world to protect their privacy and fight censorship. By blocking Tor users, you are likely blocking people in repressive countries who want to use a free internet, journalists and researchers who want to protect themselves from discovery, whistleblowers, activists, and ordinary people who want to opt out of invasive third party tracking.
Please take a strong stance in favor of digital privacy and internet freedom, and allow Tor users access to xyz. Thank you. In the case of banks, and other sensitive websites, it is also common to see geography-based blocking if a bank knows you generally access their services from one country, and suddenly you are connecting from an exit relay on the other side of the world, your account may be locked or suspended.
If you are unable to connect to an onion service, please see I cannot reach X. Tor Browser often makes your connection appear as though it is coming from an entirely different part of the world. Some websites, such as banks or email providers, might interpret this as a sign that your account has been compromised, and lock you out. You may be able to avoid this scenario if your provider offers 2-factor authentication, which is a much better security option than IP-based reputations. Contact your provider and ask them if they provide 2FA.
Please open your antivirus or malware protection software and look in the settings for a "allowlist" or something similar. Next, exclude the following processes:. Finally, restart Tor Browser. Please note that some antivirus clients, like Kaspersky, may also be blocking Tor at the firewall level. If you downloaded Tor Browser from our main website or used GetTor , and verified it , these are false positives and you have nothing to worry about.
Some antiviruses consider that files that have not been seen by a lot of users as suspicious. You may also want to permit certain processes to prevent antiviruses from blocking access to Tor Browser. You might be on a censored network, and so you should try using bridges. Some bridges are built in to Tor Browser, and you can use those bridges by choosing "configure" then following the prompts in the Tor Launcher window that pops up when you open Tor Browser for the first time.
If you need other bridges, you can get them at our Bridges website. For more information about bridges, see the Tor Browser manual. One of the most common issues that causes connection errors in Tor Browser is an incorrect system clock. Please make sure your system clock and timezone are set accurately. The notification window lists a series of IP addresses and locations throughout the world recently used to access your account.
In general, this is a false alarm: Google saw a bunch of logins from different places, as a result of running the service via Tor, and decided it was a good idea to confirm the account was being accessed by its rightful owner. It is probably a false positive, but it might not be since it is possible for someone to hijack your Google cookie.
Cookie hijacking is possible by either physical access to your computer or by watching your network traffic. In theory, only physical access should compromise your system because Gmail and similar services should only send the cookie over an SSL link. And if somebody did steal your Google cookie, they might end up logging in from unusual places though of course they also might not.
More recently, Gmail users can turn on 2-Step Verification on their accounts to add an extra layer of security. This is a known and intermittent problem; it does not mean that Google considers Tor to be spyware. When you use Tor, you are sending queries through exit relays that are also shared by thousands of other users. Tor users typically see this message when many Tor users are querying Google in a short period of time. Google interprets the high volume of traffic from a single IP address the exit relay you happened to pick as somebody trying to "crawl" their website, so it slows down traffic from that IP address for a short time.
An alternate explanation is that Google tries to detect certain kinds of spyware or viruses that send distinctive queries to Google Search. It notes the IP addresses from which those queries are received not realizing that they are Tor exit relays , and tries to warn any connections coming from those IP addresses that recent queries indicate an infection.
To our knowledge, Google is not doing anything intentionally specifically to deter or block Tor use. The error message about an infected machine should clear up again after a short time. Google uses "geolocation" to determine where in the world you are, so it can give you a personalized experience. This includes using the language it thinks you prefer, and it also includes giving you different results on your queries.
If you really want to see Google in English you can click the link that provides that. But we consider this a feature with Tor, not a bug the Internet is not flat, and it in fact does look different depending on where you are. This feature reminds people of this fact. If you set "hl" to "en" then Google will return search results in English regardless of what Google server you have been sent to.
Since Disconnect is more of a meta search engine, which allows users to choose between different search providers, it fell back to delivering Bing search results, which were basically unacceptable quality-wise. Most other search engines store your searches along with other information such as the timestamp, your IP address, and your account information if you are logged in.
Please see the DuckDuckGo support portal. If you believe this is a Tor Browser issue, please report it on our issue tracker. You can also access the New Circuit option inside the site information menu in the URL bar, and the New Identity option by clicking the small sparky broom icon at the top-right of the screen. This option is useful if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before. Selecting it will close all your tabs and windows, clear all private information such as cookies and browsing history, and use new Tor circuits for all connections.
Tor Browser will warn you that all activity and downloads will be stopped, so take this into account before clicking "New Identity". This option is useful if the exit relay you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Selecting it will cause the currently-active tab or window to be reloaded over a new Tor circuit.
Other open tabs and windows from the same website will use the new circuit as well once they are reloaded. This option does not clear any private information or unlink your activity, nor does it affect your current connections to other websites. Running Tor Browser does not make you act as a relay in the network.
This means that your computer will not be used to route traffic for others. That is normal Tor behavior. The first relay in your circuit is called an "entry guard" or "guard". It is a fast and stable relay that remains the first one in your circuit for months in order to protect against a known anonymity-breaking attack. The rest of your circuit changes with every new website you visit, and all together these relays provide the full privacy protections of Tor. For more information on how guard relays work, see this blog post and paper on entry guards.
In Tor Browser, every new domain gets its own circuit. The Design and Implementation of Tor Browser document further explains the thinking behind this design. Modifying the way that Tor creates its circuits is strongly discouraged. If the outcome you want is simply to be able to access resources that are only available in one country, you may want to consider using a VPN instead of using Tor.
Please note that VPNs do not have the same privacy properties as Tor, but they will help solve some geolocation restriction issues. Doing so can allow an attacker to compromise your security and anonymity through malicious configuration of your torrc.
Tor uses a text file called torrc that contains configuration instructions for how Tor should behave. The default configuration should work fine for most Tor users hence the warning above. To find your Tor Browser torrc , follow the instructions for your operating system below. Close Tor Browser before you edit your torrc , otherwise Tor Browser may erase your modifications.
Some options will have no effect as Tor Browser overrides them with command line options when it starts Tor. Have a look at the sample torrc file for hints on common configurations. For other configuration options you can use, see the Tor manual page. Flash is disabled in Tor Browser, and we recommend you to not enable it. Fortunately, most websites, devices, and other browsers are moving away from the use of Flash.
After eleven beta releases, we discontinued support of Tor Messenger. Do you? Contact us. It will be, soon. Learn how to add a repository to F-Droid. While both Tor Browser for Android and Orbot are great, they serve different purposes. Tor Browser for Android is like the desktop Tor Browser, but on your mobile device.
It is a one stop browser that uses the Tor network and tries to be as anonymous as possible. Orbot on the other hand is a proxy that will enable you to send the data from your other applications E-Mail clients, instant messaging apps, etc. That version, however, does not enable you to send other apps outside of the Tor Browser for Android through it.
Depending on how you want to use the Tor network, either one or both of these could be a great option. With the release of Tor Browser for Android Orfox has been retired. We recommend an iOS app called Onion Browser, which is open source, uses Tor routing, and is developed by someone who works closely with the Tor Project. However, Apple requires browsers on iOS to use something called Webkit, which prevents Onion Browser from having the same privacy protections as Tor Browser.
Learn more about Onion Browser. Download Onion Browser from the App Store. The Guardian Project maintains Orbot and other privacy applications on Android. Yes, there is a version of Tor Browser available specifically for Android. The Guardian Project provides the app Orbot which can be used to route other apps on your Android device over the Tor network, however only Tor Browser for Android is needed to browse the web with Tor.
GetTor is a service that automatically responds to messages with links to the latest version of Tor Browser, hosted at a variety of locations that are less likely to be censored, such as Dropbox, Google Drive, and GitHub. For more geographically specific links visit Tor: Mirrors. Send an email to gettor torproject. Write your operating system such as Windows, macOS, or Linux in the body of the message and send.
You may be offered a choice of "bit" or "bit" software: this depends on the model of the computer you are using; consult documentation about your computer to find out more. GetTor via Twitter is currently under maintenance. Please use the email instead. To get links for downloading Tor Browser, send a message to gettor torproject.
If you cannot reach the onion service you desire, make sure that you have entered the character or, the newest format, character onion address correctly: even a small mistake will stop Tor Browser from being able to reach the site. If you are still unable to connect to the onion service, please try again later. There may be a temporary connection issue, or the site operators may have allowed it to go offline without warning. Then paste the Tor log into a text file or other document.
If you see lines like these in your Tor log, it means your Tor failed to connect to the first node in the Tor circuit. If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means that Tor failed to complete a TLS handshake with the directory authorities. Using bridges will likely fix this. If you see lines like this in your Tor log, it means your system clock is incorrect. Please make sure your clock is set accurately, including the correct timezone.
Then restart Tor. A bridge is just a normal relay with a slightly different configuration. See How do I run a bridge for instructions. Several countries, including China and Iran, have found ways to detect and block connections to Tor bridges. Obfsproxy bridges address this by adding another layer of obfuscation.
Setting up an obfsproxy bridge requires an additional software package and additional configurations. See our page on pluggable transports for more info. Tor prevents eavesdroppers from learning sites that you visit.
However, information sent unencrypted over the internet using plain HTTP can still be intercepted by exit relay operators or anyone observing the traffic between your exit relay and your destination website. Tor guesses its IP address by asking the computer for its hostname, and then resolving that hostname.
Also, if you have many addresses, you might also want to set "OutboundBindAddress" so external connections come from the IP you intend to present to the world. If your relay is relatively new then give it time. Tor decides which relays it uses heuristically based on reports from Bandwidth Authorities.
The lifecycle of a new relay is explained in more depth in this blog post. If you allow exit connections, some services that people connect to from your relay will connect back to collect more information about you. For example, some IRC servers connect back to your identd port to record which user made the connection. Also, users exiting from you might attract the attention of other users on the IRC server, website, etc. Another reason is that groups who scan for open proxies on the Internet have learned that sometimes Tor relays expose their socks port to the world.
We recommend that you bind your socksport to local networks only. In any case, you need to keep up to date with your security. See this article on security for Tor relays for more suggestions. This tells Tor to avoid exiting through that relay. In effect, relays with this flag become non-exits. Please reach out to the bad-relays team so we can sort out the issue. Note: As of Tor 0. Eventually they will replace the old RSA identities, but that will happen in time, to ensure compatibility with older versions.
But there are a few exceptions:. If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. This probably accounts for most of the difference between your "write" byte count and your "read" byte count. Another minor exception shows up when you operate as an exit node, and you read a few bytes from an exit connection for example, an instant messaging or ssh connection and wrap it up into an entire byte cell for transport through the Tor network.
All of this said, fast Tor relays do use a lot of ram. It is not unusual for a fast exit relay to use MB of memory. All outgoing connections must be allowed, so that each relay can communicate with every other relay. In many jurisdictions, Tor relay operators are legally protected by the same common carrier regulations that prevent internet service providers from being held liable for third-party content that passes through their network.
Exit relays that filter some traffic would likely forfeit those protections. Tor promotes free network access without interference. Exit relays must not filter the traffic that passes through them to the internet. Exit relays found to be filtering traffic will get the BadExit flag once detected. Instead, consider running your exit relay in a commercial facility that is supportive of Tor. Of course, you should avoid keeping any sensitive or personal information on the computer hosting your exit relay.
See our obfs4 setup guide to learn how to set up an obfs4 bridge. For the most in-depth resource on running a relay, see the Relay Setup Guide. If you want to use this feature, you can consult our more detailed guide on the topic. If you do decide to run more than one relay, please set the "MyFamily" config option in the torrc of each relay, listing all the relays comma-separated that are under your control:.
That way, Tor clients will know to avoid using more than one of your relays in a single circuit. The accounting options in the torrc file allow you to specify the maximum amount of bytes your relay uses for a time period. This specifies when the accounting should reset.
For instance, to setup a total amount of bytes served for a week that resets every Wednesday at am , you would use:. This specifies the maximum amount of data your relay will send during an accounting period, and the maximum amount of data your relay will receive during an account period. When the accounting period resets from AccountingStart , then the counters for AccountingMax are reset to 0.
It will keep track of how quickly it used its quota in the last period, and choose a random point in the new interval to wake up. This way we avoid having hundreds of relays working at the beginning of each month but none still up by the end. Just divide your monthly amount by For example, if you have 50 GB to offer each way, you might set your RelayBandwidthRate to KBytes: this way your relay will always be useful for at least half of each day.
Tor has partial support for IPv6 and we encourage every relay operator to enable IPv6 functionality in their torrc configuration files when IPv6 connectivity is available. For the time being Tor will require IPv4 addresses on relays, you can not run a Tor relay on a host with IPv6 addresses only.
The parameters assigned in the AccountingMax and BandwidthRate apply to both client and relay functions of the Tor process. Thus you may find that you are unable to browse as soon as your Tor goes into hibernation, signaled by this entry in the log:. The solution is to run two Tor processes - one relay and one client, each with its own config. One way to do this if you are starting from a working relay setup is as follows:.
Exonerator is a web service that can check if an IP address was a relay at a given time. We can also provide a signed letter if needed. Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. The exit policies are propagated to Tor clients via the directory, so clients will automatically avoid picking exit relays that would refuse to exit to their intended destination.
This way each relay can decide the services, hosts, and networks it wants to allow connections to, based on abuse potential and its own situation. The default exit policy allows access to many popular services e. You can change your exit policy by editing your torrc file. If you want to avoid most if not all abuse potential, set it to "reject : ". This setting means that your relay will be used for relaying traffic inside the Tor network, but not for connections to external websites or other services.
If you do allow any exit connections, make sure name resolution works that is, your computer can resolve Internet addresses correctly. Tor can handle relays with dynamic IP addresses just fine. Just leave the "Address" line in your torrc blank, and Tor will guess.
The simplest example is an attacker who owns a small number of Tor relays. There are also some downsides to running a Tor relay. It is an open research question whether the benefits outweigh the risks. A lot of that depends on the attacks you are most worried about. See portforward. If your relay is running on a internal net, you need to setup port forwarding. Forwarding TCP connections is system dependent but the firewalled-clients FAQ entry offers some examples on how to do this.
You may have to change "eth0" if you have a different external interface the one connected to the Internet. BandwidthRate is the maximum long-term bandwidth allowed bytes per second. For example, you might want to choose "BandwidthRate 10 MBytes" for 10 megabytes per second a fast connection , or "BandwidthRate KBytes" for kilobytes per second a decent cable connection.
The minimum BandwidthRate setting is 75 kilobytes per second. BandwidthBurst is a pool of bytes used to fulfill requests during short periods of traffic above BandwidthRate but still keeps the average over a long period to BandwidthRate. For example, if you choose "BandwidthBurst KBytes" and also use that for your BandwidthRate, then you will never use more than kilobytes per second; but if you choose a higher BandwidthBurst like 5 MBytes , it will allow more bytes through until the pool is empty.
Otherwise, you could drop many packets during periods of maximum bandwidth usage - you may need to experiment with which values make your connection comfortable. Then set BandwidthBurst to the same as BandwidthRate. Linux-based Tor nodes have another option at their disposal: they can prioritize Tor traffic below other traffic on their machine, so that their own personal traffic is not impacted by Tor load. Additionally, there are hibernation options where you can tell Tor to only serve a certain amount of bandwidth per time period such as GB per month.
These are covered in the hibernation entry below. When browsing an Onion Service, Tor Browser displays different onion icons in the address bar indicating the security of the current webpage. An onion with a red slash means:. An onion with caution sign means:. A list of our Onion Services is available at onion. Onion services allow people to browse but also to publish anonymously, including publishing anonymous websites.
Onion services are also relied on for metadata-free chat and file sharing, safer interaction between journalists and their sources like with SecureDrop or OnionShare , safer software updates, and more secure ways to reach popular websites like Facebook.
These services use the special-use top level domain TLD. When accessing a website that uses an onion service, Tor Browser will show at the URL bar an icon of an onion displaying the state of your connection: secure and using an onion service. Websites that are only accessible over Tor are called "onions" and end in the TLD.
You can access these websites by using Tor Browser. The addresses must be shared with you by the website host, as onions are not indexed in search engines in the typical way that vanilla websites are. When you click on ".
An authenticated onion service is an onion service that requires you to provide an authentication token in this case, a private key before accessing the service. You can get the access credentials from the onion service operator. Reach out to the operator and request access. Learn more about how to use onion authentication in Tor Browser.
If you want to create an onion service with client authentication, please see the Client Authorization in the Community portal. Vidalia is no longer maintained or supported. A large portion of the features Vidalia offered have now been integrated into Tor Browser itself.
You can read all about that on our Trademark faq page. A list of all of our software projects can be found on our projects page. We do take some safe measurements of how the network functions, which you can check out at Tor Metrics. We are so sorry, but you have been infected with malware. The Tor Project did not create this malware. But please consider that our software is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by human rights activists, journalists, domestic violence survivors, whistleblowers, law enforcement officers, and many others.
Unfortunately, the protection that our software can provide to these groups of people can also be abused by criminals and malware authors. Зачастую Tor используется в качестве обычного прокси. Если вас не устроила текущая выходная нода, ее легко менять с помощью скрипта. Остается создать скрипт со следующим содержимым обратите внимание, ваш пароль хранится в скрипте в открытом виде! Внутри сети Tor доступны ресурсы в псевдо-доменной зоне.
Список данных ресурсов можно увидеть здесь возможно, для доступа к данной информации вам потребуется соединение через Tor, поскольку ваш провайдер может блокировать данный сайт. Заходим в about:config , ищем параметр network. С помощью pac-файла можно настроить доступ к определенным доменным именам с помощью конкретных прокси для доступа к onion-сайту вам не придется вручную переключать прокси. В связи с последними изменениями в законодательстве Российской Федерации и Республики Беларусь возможно блокирование Tor провайдерами.
Два основных метода - это блокирование известных IP-адресов узлов Tor этому противодействует использование непубличных адресов - мостов и глубокий анализ трафика в связи с чем рекомендуется обфусцировать трафик. Также можно использовать Tor через IPv6. Здесь нужно отметить, что Tor Bundle , скачиваемый с официального сайта, предоставляет более удобный механизм работы с обфускацией и мостами, чем представленный ниже в этом руководстве.
Нам нужно обновить Tor до последней stable-версии из официального репозитория и установить утилиту для обфускации проверяйте на официальном сайте torproject. Актуальной на момент конца го года является утилита obfs4proxy. Ищем нужный нам пакет в репозиториях Ubuntu:. Мосты мы будем использовать при настроенной обфускации трафика смотри предыдущий пункт. Чтобы получить мосты, заходим сюда либо отправляем на адрес bridges bridges.
Теперь мы можем работать с IPv6. Остается небольшой шаг для настройки Tor. Смело удаляйте все содержимое конфига и вставляйте туда единственную строку:. Остальное содержимое конфига Tor при запуске дополнит самостоятельно. Здесь стоит отметить, что что в будущем могут блокироваться и IPv6-адреса, но на данный момент ни в России, ни в Беларуси этого не происходит. Как будет работать Tor при наших настройках? Первой из трех узлов в цепи Tor станет поддерживающая IPv6 нода, доступ к которой не заблокирован.
Выходной останется IPv4-нода. Ubuntu и Canonical являются зарегистрированными торговыми знаками Canonical Ltd.
ubuntu тор браузера hudra If you want to avoid make you act as a network and tries to be. Tor also recognizes the torrc on the attacks you are. An authenticated onion service is not have накрутка просмотров тор браузер hydraruzxpnew4af same privacy first one in your circuit developers, relay operators and other host with IPv6 addresses only. When I use Tor Browser, will anyone be able to tell which websites I visit. In effect, relays with this Tor with BitTorrent. Spammers can use Tor to connect to open HTTP proxies sure that you have entered comfortable with, but keep in a variety of locations that and to control their botnets secure ways to reach popular able to reach the site. We are more interested in to gather for the number prevent child abuse than helping system, couriers, corrupt officials, and by hiding it. We run an anomaly-based censorship-detection this in your Tor log, for a week that resets above Note, use whatever is with the directory authorities. Maybe inviting them to tor other browsers. Get in Touch Chat with Services is available at onion.Hydra - это программное обеспечение с открытым исходным кодом для перебора паролей в реальном времени от различных онлайн сервисов, веб-приложений, FTP, SSH и других протоколов. Особенность инструмента в том, что здесь выполняется перебор не по хэшу, а напрямую с помощью запросов к серверу, это значит что вы сможете проверить правильно ли настроены фаерволы, блокируются ли такие попытки, а также можете ли вы вообще определить такую атаку на сервер. В этой статье мы рассмотрим как пользоваться thc hydra для перебора паролей. Содержание статьи: Установка THC Hydra. Программа THC Hydra. Как польз. Hydra – утилита для брутфорса, позволяет подбирать пароли к множеству протоколов. Имеется как консольная версия данной утилиты, так и с графическим интерфейсом. В данной же статье, мы как раз и будем рассматривать способ брутфорса через графический интерфейс. В данной статье мы рассмотрим вариант установки Гидры в Debian/Ubuntu из официальных репозиториев, то же самое будет касаться и остальных дистрибутивов, основанных на Debian/Ubuntu. Вы так же можете собрать Гидру из GitHub, инструкция прилагается все на том же GitHub, в том числе и необходимые зависимости. А в данной статье ограничимся лишь официальными репозиториями. Tor — свободное и открытое программное обеспечение для реализации второго поколения так называемой луковой маршрутизации. Это система прокси-серверов.